tough times

Learn Survival Skills Before Being Forced To Use Them

Prior to decide to expose yourself to an overwhelming challenge, it would be a good edge to be aware what pressures and difficulties you’ll probably encounter and, above all, how you will deal with them. Being knowledgeable of what you’ll have to cope with will remove a large amount of doubt that can diminish your determination. As a result of discovering these challenges you’ll be able in most cases to remove them or maybe put together an approach to manage them.

The best approach to understand how you will act in response an event is to go through it. Your life on the Earth is a learning curve that imbues you with know-how. Equipped with wisdom and experience you will survive all situations.

How To Gain Experience

You can acquire experience and learn how you react by pushing yourself to the limit while being rigorously supervised. The practice should be as challenging as, or possibly tougher than, the real scenario.

It’s essential to put the hard work in which allows to wipe out every worries that may endanger your ability to succeed, for example: am i healthy enough? can i bring this load around? Am i proceeding in the correct direction?

When a specific thing occurs it’s of no advantage  declaring: “I wished I’d succeeded in doing so, or I should have performed so”.

Therefore comprehending your whole body will significantly allow you to triumph over trouble. There are numerous challenges to take care of, all demanding totally different answers: how would you react when fatigued? And could you think while completely soaked and chilled? You must ask yourself questions like these.

Learning how you deal with food craving, what it means being deprived of sleep or the way you behave when dehydrated. Can you really overcome suffering, and in what way would you are affected by fear? How does the cold weather influence you and also what exactly is your ability to tolerate high temperatures? Know the answers prior to being exposed to these hard questions.

Pain and Fear Are Valuable Assets

Many people experience fear and pain as a negative aspect, while the truth is they’re beneficial survival resources. Without these kind of emotions you would do dumb things, and pay for outcomes. Fear prevents you doing something you are not sure of, as well as makes you think before you take action. Practical knowledge triumphs over fear and when you are aware of the dangers and potential risks you can take into account the required safety measures to overcome the challenge.

Pain is Awareness

Pain despite the fact that is unpleasant is the manner your body cries for help. It brings awareness to an injured part to avoid even further damage. If you understand what is creating the suffering and above all how you can take care of the injury, you can prevail over this, or reduce the effects of it.

Fear is Your Best Friend

Don’t attempt to conceal your fears! It is absolutely nothing to be ashamed of. The instant you are doing something hazardous without receiving a buzz, it’s time to stop that activity. Fear makes you review your procedures and pay more attention.

Loneliness and solitude should be confronted. It’s best to have a friend with you but the truth is you have to be ready to depend on yourself when the need arises.

Remember: you can deceive others about how great you’re but you can’t trick yourself.

An individual in unfamiliar territory or encountering a whole new problem can let his imagination gallop. This may lead to irrational behavior with severe repercussions. Practical knowledge will certainly strengthen self belief providing you with confidence and educating your thoughts.

The Dark Side of Fear

Panic is the dark side of fear. If it’s not controlled fear can cause panic and all is shed. Fear can paralyze you and cloud your thinking. When faced with a surprising challenge, take control of your emotions by breathing. Stand upright, feet at shoulder width, breathe through the nose counting to ten. Retain the breath for around 10 secs then exhale intentionally with the mouth to a 10 count. This method slows everything down letting you to put things in perspective.

Scenario planning

Invest some time to imagine a specific scenario, trying to find all the potential issues. Ask yourself “what wouldl I act if this takes place?”. Picture the worse probable situation and come up with an answer. Create a backup plan that you can carry out if things go wrong. In this way you will not be trapped: it’s whenever you don’t deal with the problems that errors and injuries occur. Failing to plan is planning to fail.

Know thyself

Study your body and cultivate your sensory faculties. After some time you possibly can develop a 6th sense which keeps you safe and able to make the right choices. You discover a feel for the land; can easily predict the weather, evaluate distances, and detect potential dangers. Every time you feel a hunch or get an uneasy sensation, look closely at these because they could save your life.

A Progressive Learning Curve

First learn how to survive at tepid latitudes in all weather conditions. The cold weather is the toughest to survive in. It dulls your body and mind and any error is irreparable. High mountain ranges are generally without life and troubles get greater with elevation.

By exiting from your comfort zone you soon understand the fundamentals and learn new skills.

Once again it’s just with training that you’ll acquire these survival skills that can be employed everywhere, not only in the outdoors.



Survival Skills: How to Purify Water

Water is essential to human life. A person cannot go longer than three days without hydration. A person that does not receive liquid of some sort will, within three days exhibit signs of dehydration. Soon that person will die. Many people do not think about hydration on a daily basis. People get water from their food and juices, such as Gatorade and other drinks like colas and coffee. Safe drinking water for the most part, is taken for granted because in industrialized nations, there is not a lack of it. You must learn how to filter and purify water to keep yourself and family alive during a crisis, or when in a survival situation such as being lost or stranded in the wilderness.

Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococci Are Common Bacteria Found In Water

The water that flows from any household tap is treated and purified to remove bacteria and metals such as lead. The water that is treated generally comes from reservoirs and lakes. The same water untreated can be found inrivers, lakes and ponds.

Filter Water before purifying

Ideally, you will have a way to filter the water. Charcoal and coffee filters are an excellent way to filter water. Have water filtering in mind when packing your survival backpack. Cloth such as a tee-shirt or piece of flannel or even cheesecloth can be used, as well.  A small stainless steel bowl is recommended. Charcoal placed in the coffee filter is the ideal filtering medium for water, it removes heavy metals and other contaminates. However, water filtered with charcoal will still need to be purified to ensure all the bacteria are destroyed. Activated charcoal can be purchased or charcoal as a filtering medium can be made from burning hardwoods.


  1. Make your own charcoal right in camp. Use only hardwoods such as maple, hickory or oak. Pull the wood from the fire when it looks like charcoal. If possible, cover the wood with ashes to smother the fire otherwise; it will simply burn to ashes. Use sand or soil if you do not have enough ash. Once cooled, rinse the ash or dirt off, crush the charcoal and fill a tin can with a coffee filter in the bottom, pouring the charcoal into the filter. Punch a small hole in the bottom of the can to allow the filtered water to drain into another container to be treated or boiled.
  2. Dip with one vessel and filter into another vessel such as an empty water bottle. The cup or bottle used to dip the contaminated water will have bacteria and contaminates at the drink line. Filter the water so the second container’s drink line is not contaminated.

Methods to Purify Water to Make It Safe for Human Consumption

  • Boiling (my preferred method)
  • 2% liquid iodine  (aka tincture of iodine)
  • Typical household 5% Chlorine Bleach Unscented

Water that is safe to drink is called potable water. You may see containers that state they are safe to store potable water or containers that state not to be used for potable water. Containers that are safe to store water in include a well-rinsed milk jug, bottled water containers, vinegar jugs and well-rinsed soda containers. Essentially any container that was used to package food items is considered food safe, and can be used generally to store or transport water.

It is recommended to treat as large a volume as possible at one time. Your water source may dry up, or you may have to vacate your camp in a hurry. Therefore, having purified water stockpiled allows you to travel with purified water.

How to Purify Water by Boiling

Prior to boiling, you should filter as much debris and sediment from the water as you can. You will need the means to start a fire and you must have a vessel in which to boil the water. The water must boil rapidly for at least one minute. Boiling water will cause a loss of water through evaporation, so boiling longer than one minute will cause you to lose water volume. Before drinking, you must let the water cool. Protect the water from contamination by any means possible. Boiled water will have a very bland taste. To enhance the flavor of boiled water or water treated with iodine or bleach, you can add tea plants as mint. Add the enhancements after the water has cooled.

Water that has been poisoned or contaminated with chemicals is not safe to drink even after boiling, treating with iodine or with chlorine bleach. If you suspect your water source is chemically contaminated you must find another source.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using 2% Liquid Iodine Using a Standard Eyedropper as a Measurement

Once again, the water must be filtered to remove sediment and other debris. The iodine will not work as well if the water is extremely cloudy from debris or sediment. The ratio is based on liters. The ratio for iodine is five drops per liter.  If after filtering, the water is still cloudy, you can double the ratio but do not add more than 10 drops per liter. Shake the sealed container well and let set for at least 30 minutes. Tincture of iodine typically comes packaged with its own dropper.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using Chlorine Bleach

The ratio for chlorine bleach is also based on liters. When using five percent chlorine bleach, which is found in most homes, add two drops per liter. If cloudy after filtering, double the amount. Never exceed 4 drops of chlorine bleach per liter. If the chlorine bleach you are using is less than five percent such as one percent chlorine, use 10 drops per liter, never exceeding 20 drops per liter. Some chlorine bleach can contain between 7 and 10 percent chlorine, if this is the case, only use one drop per liter and do not add more than two drops per liter. The water once treated must set for at least 30 minutes. Do not use the dropper from the iodine bottle. Purchase and carry an eyedropper specifically for the bleach.


Summer Threats: Heat Illness

The temperature of the body is auto-regulated within very narrow limits. You’ve to  pay particular attention to whatever destabilizes this delicate balance. Heat can sentence  to death the body, pushing it over and above its capabilities . In a normal situation your inner thermostat generates sweat that evaporates and cools down the body. However, in a humid and  hot environment , evaporation is decreased and it’s necessary an extraordinary effort to keep body temperature at 36.8° ± 0.4°C.

To prevent these illnesses, make sure you keep up your body efficiency by:

  • drinking enough water
  • taking sufficient salt
  • eating adequately

Should you spend more calories than you take in, you will be more vulnerable to heat illnesses. You might lose your wish for food because of high temperature  but you should consume your required ration, arranging the more substantial meal at the cooler hours.

Roughly 75% of the human body is fluid. All chemical functions in the body occur in a water solution that helps in the elimination of toxic body waste products and plays a crucial role in the maintenance of an even body temperature. A loss of 2 liters of body fluid (around 2.5% of body weight) lessens efficiency by 25% and a loss of fluid corresponding to 15% of body weight is generally lethal.

Heat Illness Progression

  1. Deficiency of salt results in heat cramps.
  2. Lack of salt and insufficient water leads to heat exhaustion.
  3. General failure of the body’s cooling system causes heat stroke that can be lethal.

Heat Illness Symptoms

  • Sunburn: skin redness and pain, possible swelling, blisters, fever, headaches.
  • Heat cramps: muscle cramps of limbs or stomach. Profuse sweating  and excessive thirst.
  • Heat exhaustion: heavy perspiration with pale, moist, cool skin; headache, weakness, dizziness, appetite loss; heat cramps, nausea without or with vomit, accelerated respiration, confusion, prickling of the hands or feet.
  • Heat stroke: perspiration quits; red, flushed, hot dry skin.

It is vital to identify heat illness symptoms quickly. When affected by heat stroke the most harmful condition, there is an inclination for the victim to slip away from his team and try to hide in a shady and secluded area: if not discovered and treated he’ll perish.



Build A Water Filter To Survive In The Wilderness

It is crucial to be able to know how to build and use a water filter. You need a stable supply of water to maintain yourself in a survival situation and without it you will dehydratate. Finding water is a skill by itself but then you still have to make it safe and secure for human ingestion.

Filtering Is Different From Purifying

Filtering water is a different skill from purifying water. Nevertheless, when the best water obtainable is actually muddy water, it is a fundamental skill that may save your life.

Filtering the water basically means eliminating all visible dirt and debris which will help make it more secure to drink. Harmful bacteria and microorganisms will still exist in the water but the filtering process will make it taste just a little better.

Remember: all water procured in a survival situation needs to be purified, with the exception of rainwater. Filtering is necessary but it is not enough. Bacteria, protozoa, bacteria and parasites that can make you sick are too small to be stopped by a simple filter. The simplest way to purify the water is to boil it  for at least one minute.

Making a Bottle Water Filter

In order to filter water, you need a container. A plastic bottle is appropriate. Cut off the base of the bottle and use the top as a funnel. To trap small debris and particles, put some cloth material into the funnel. Using a can will also do the job. For the water to be able to run through you will have to punch a number of holes into the bottom of the can with your pocket knife. Then it’s just a matter of letting the water drop through the holes.

A simpler technique is to place a piece of cloth over the container’s mouth. This filter should take away the larger particles.

Making a natural water filter

The natural world provides you all the material to build a water filter. For example, to build a container, create a cone from bark or other materials as leaves. Alternate pebbles and sand in multiple layers to make a filter, working from coarse to fine as you work your way down the container. At the bottom of the container, use non-poisonous grass, several pebbles, or a piece of cotton cloth to stop the sand from pouring through. Wrap the bottom of the container together with a rope to hold the filter together.

Slowly pour your collected water into the cone. As the water drips out of the filter gather it in another container. Repeat this process until the water flows crystal clear. The slower the water falls the better.

Remember:  knowing how to build and use a  filter is a vital survival skill. Prepare yourself: build several water filter before you need one!

modern fire triangle

Firecraft: The Fire Triangle

The Modern Fire Triangle

Three elements are all essential both to start and maintain fires: Oxygen, Heat, and Fuel. The secret is to obtain the right balance between the three.

HEAT is the usual method to start a fire. You can generate it from a spark, a chemical reaction, pressure or by friction.

To be able to create the fire, we add the heat to a FUEL. As soon as the fire begins, the heat coming from flames maintains it, and results in additional fuel to catch fire and burn. As the fire starts, you require more fuel. Begin with tiny, dry pieces that will produce sufficiently heat to then burn increasingly larger pieces.

OXYGEN is necessary to induce combustion. Eliminating oxygen is the normal method in which people extinguish fires, for example with water as well as covering them with dirt or snow. This action reduces the provision of oxygen, smothering the fire . Without having oxygen the fire dies.

If you smother the fire using an excessive amount of wood, oxygen won’t reach the flame. Should the fire dying, fan it with paper or your hands to develop a draught that feeds oxygen to it. The most economical way to provide the proper amount of oxygen to the fire is constructing a fire structure.

The Original Fire Triangle

With primitive fire skills, you will find a different 3 key components that are important as the ones in the “scientific” fire triangle: Competence, Materials, and Power.

Normally, whenever you’re making fire employing a primitive technique, all these 3 factors are well-balanced. On the other hand, if any of these is lessened, then the other factors needs to be amplified.

To provide an example, imagine you are attempting to produce a bow drill fire using poor wood. It’s still possible to achieve it, however your technique and power have to be raised.

Or perhaps, imagine you aren’t feeling particularly full of energy one day and thus have much less power than normal. In case your materials are of higher quality and you’ve got an improved level of skill, you should able to get a fire starting.

An additional situation: let’s suppose you’ve very little technique, having never ever produced fire using a bow drill in the past. Nicely, if your materials are of excellent quality, and you’ve energy, you’ll still be able to generate fire. Or maybe, if you haven’t very much strength either, and yet your materials are actually of extraordinary quality, then you can get fire. And etc ..

And lastly, assuming you have any 2 of the 3 factors, but you are definitely missing the 3rd, it might be next to hopeless ignite a fire.

To provide an example, in case you are highly trained in a specific fire-making technique, and also have plenty of strength power, but you don’t have any resources or incredibly bad resources (perhaps just water-soaked wood is accessible): building a fire is going to be unachievable or almost so.

Connecting To The Modern Fire Triangle

So keep in mind: you’ve to practice to acquire skills and competencies, you’ve to study to discover the most effective materials and finally you need to train to obtain strength. Then you’ll be able to apply strength and skill on the materials to generate heat and start a fire. Mother Earth will aid you by blowing the right amount of oxygen.

This way, you’ll be able to connect the original fire triangle to the modern one.



10 Basic Steps To Face a Survival Situation

In today’s post we will consider many of the basic principles which are top-notch to surviving any dangerous situation.

Value Surviving

Each and every person possesses a natural impulse to live although the majority of us is  accustomed to a life of comfort. Discomfort and difficulties are irritating and unpleasant. When dealing with a high risk situation it is extremely crucial to set the value for surviving above the value for comfort and convenience.

Overcome Panic and Fear

Fear and panic tend to be your foes in a survival situation. Unless you manage these emotions it may be hard to make a choice that is founded on sound intelligence. Fear and panic could potentially cause you to make decisions subject to your emotions rather than the real situation. They can also drain you of energy.

Evaluate the Situation

Every time you are in a risky situation, it is essential to first keep your wits about you and size up the situation. Security is without doubt the priority in this particular type of situation. Employ your senses of smell, sight and hearing to gain a feel of your surroundings. That in fact will enable you to produce a survival plan.

Gauge your Surroundings

Relax and take a few moments to discover the pattern of your surroundings and what’s occurring around you. Every single environment on the earth, no matter whether it is desert, jungle or forest features a pattern or even a rhythm. This pattern may include bird or animal noises and even the sounds of insects. Grasping this pattern will let you understand exactly what is normal for that habitat and what is not so that you’ll have a very better sense of imminent threat.

Assess your Own Physical Condition

After you have made note of your surroundings it’s time to take into account your own physical condition. When you happen to be into a survival situation you should meticulously note any wounds you may have and apply first aid while also taking care to avoid any other harm or injury. Be sure that you are drinking enough fluids to avoid dehydration. In the event you are in a climate that’s cold or wet, you will be required to wear supplementary clothing to prevent hypothermia.

Survey your Equipments and Tools

The next important step is to check your tools and equipment. Analyze to discover exactly what is available to you and likewise its state.
Now that you’ve taken stock of your own situation along with surroundings, equipment and physical condition the next task is to start with developing a survival plan. This plan will focus on the essential needs for survival: water, food and homeothermy (shelter and fire).

Make use of your Senses

When you are in a survival situation the improper move can lead to possible danger or maybe even death. For this reason it is extremely important that you take full advantage of all of your senses before you decide to make any move or decision. Operating in haste tends to be dangerous. Strategize each move which you make. Make certain you are ready to move quickly but without endangering yourself. Use any of your senses to assess every situation by observing smells and sounds and being aware of the changes in temperatures. You should constantly be aware.

Remember Where you Are

Note your location on a map if one is available to you and correlate it to the territory that surrounds you. This may be a very simple principle but it is definitely one which is vitally crucial. Should you be with other people, always make sure you know their position too. Pay extremely close attention to your location as well as the direction you are proceeding. By no means simply place confidence in others to track your route. Regularly adjust yourself to your location and be sure you know how your location is relevant to the position of water sources and areas that could provide concealment and shelter.

Conform to your Environment

One attribute that the natives of many of the most remote regions in the planet have in common is that they adapted to their habitat. The very same is also true of animals. In an attempt to endure a dangerous situation, you need to discover how to do the same. Keep a constant vigil and observe the way in which local animals operates in the environment, where they go for water and foods, when they sleep, when they rise, etc. While not all the types of foods that are eaten by animals are secure for human eating, this sort of observance can provide you important advises to how you can survive in that environment.


In the majority of modern societies, we do not have to be concerned about looking for the items essential for basic survival. In a dangerous situation, this isn’t always the case. You should be capable to improvise and use equipment and tools which were originally created for one purpose and utilize them for other needs. Natural resources can also often be used for a range of different needs. To illustrate, a rock can easily be used for a hammer.



Top 4 Fire Structures

There are several methods that you should consider for laying a fire.

Tepee Method

To prepare a fire utilizing this method you should place the tinder and then the kindling and firewood in a conical structure. Light the tinder. The outer layer of logs will fall in feeding the fire. This approach is perfectly for using with wet wood.

Lean-to Method

Push a green stick directly into ground at a 30 degree angle. Point the tip of the stick wind. Place tinder deep within the lean-to stick. Position bits of kindling against the stick. Light the tinder. Be sure that you add more kindling as the kindling catches fire from the tinder.


Scratch a cross in the earth. The cross really should be about 30 centimeters in dimensions. Dig the cross not less than 7 centimeters deep. Set a wad of tinder in the center of the cross. Making a pyramid of kindling above the tinder. The shallow ditch consent air to sweep under the tinder to supply a vital draft for the fire.


Position small branches or logs parallel on the soil. Next, place a layer of small wood steadily across the logs. Add three or four more layer of branches or logs. Each layer should be slightly smaller than the one below it. a starter fire directly on the top of the pyramid. The starter fire will ignite the logs below as the fire burns. This will offer you with a fire that will burn down and won’t absolutely need any thought throughout the night.




How to Procure Water

Water is a valuable commodity and this is never more evident than in a survival situation. Water is your main concern before food and shelter. Knowing how to procure water is essential to everyone’s survival.

Water can be obtained by various methods to include plants, hardwood trees, and the ground itself. Obviously, rivers, streams, lakes and ponds are another water source. However, water obtained from standing pools, rivers, lakes or streams must be purified before it is safe to drink.

You might naturally assume that small streams or creeks deep in the woods would be free of contaminates. This is not the case though. Animals and other humans may very well have contaminated the water. Additionally, water will contain bacterium from various sources such as animal waste and the naturally occurring bacteria in nature will be present.

Things to Look For Around a Water Source

You want signs of animal activity around a water source, such as birds and mammals, as well as, insects. This usually indicates the water is not chemically contaminated. Animals and insects can drink water contaminated with bacteria without any ill effects whereas humans cannot.

Even though, there are no chemical pollutants, the water it is still not safe for human consumption without first properly purifying.

How to Procure Water from Trees and Plants

Hardwoods such as maple (Acer), oak (Quercus), walnut (Juglans regia), hickory (Carya) and birch (Betula) will secrete sap if small holes are made in the tree. Do not ring the tree with cuts because this may kill the tree. Small holes, such as the ones used to harvest maple syrup, will suffice. Simply bore a hole with your knife or make slanted diagonal slits in the tree after removing a small section of the bark. The tree will produce small amounts of sap that can immediately be consumed. Early spring is the ideal time, but trees can produce sap at virtually anytime except in extreme cold weather. Having a means to collect the sap is ideal; otherwise simply drink straight from the tree.

All the common species of thistles (Tribe: Cardueae Geni: Arctium, Carduus, Cirsium) can be harvested for water. Once the thistles have been removed, the pulpy stalk can be squeezed to extract the water or eaten. The plant will contain some nutrients so eating the stalks is ideal.

Remember: simply having the plant described to you is not an adequate means of identification. Before a day hike or camping trip you should research various plants so you can make a positive identification when out in the woods.

Certain cacti such as that in the Opuntia genus (Prickly Pear) contain potable water, as well. The cactus can also be eaten or squeezed to extract the water.

The Earth’s Soil Is One of the Best Water Filtration Systems There Is

Once you find a stream, lake or even a pond, you can dig small depressions next to the water. Typically, the soil next to a body of water will contain sand and small gravel, which acts as a filtration system. The small depressions will fill with ground water. This water is normally safe to drink. Filter the sediment out by wrapping your cup or canteen mouth with some cloth and dip the vessel into the depression. Contaminates contained in the water will have been filtered out by the soil.

However, do not dig a channel from the body of water to collect in the depression. The water must bubble up from the ground. This perking of water assures you that the ground has filtered it, and has made the water safe for drinking.

How to Procure Water Using Rain Gear or a Poncho and Even Plastic Sheeting

Many of you may have walked outside in the morning during the summer months and have found your vehicle’s windshield is covered in moisture. The moisture collected on outside surfaces overnight is called dew. Dew is caused by the sun heating the moisture in the atmosphere during the day and the cooling at night allows it to condensate on surfaces, such as a windshield.

Dew can be collected by draping your poncho, rain gear or plastic over a bush at night. Place the material so there are small depressions to collect the dew. Avoid placing the collection station under trees; having an open spot is ideal for maximum collection. Plastic and or your rain gear can also be used to collect rainwater. Dig a small depression in the ground, place the material over the hole and secure the sides with rocks. Place a smaller rock in the center to create a funnel effect.

Monitor the water source carefully or cover to prevent contamination by animals and insects. Ensure water is not allowed to run off from the ground’s surface into the collection pool.

How to Procure Water Directly From the Ground Using a Solar Distiller

To make a solar water distiller or water still you will need clear or semi-clear plastic and the means to dig a small hole. The distiller works by sweating or distilling moisture from the ground. The plastic sheeting needs to be big enough to cover the hole and allow slack to form a depression. Plastic can easily be stored in any pack by folding or rolling up tightly. Keep in mind when digging the hole, the larger the depression, the more water you will collect. This process is similar to a glass of liquid sweating in a warm room. Heat transfers from hot to cold so as the ground and plants warm, the heat will transfer from the ground to the cooler air. This process leaves the moisture behind on the plastic.

Once dug if the soil looks dry you can place non-poisonous green plants in the hole. The sun will also sweat the moisture from the plants. Place the plastic over the hole and secure the sides with rocks. Place a small rock in the center to form a funnel. You can make a hole in the plastic and place a cup in the depression to collect the water or simply scoop it from the plastic. Soon the ground and any plants in the hole will begin to heat up. You will see condensation on the plastic relatively quickly. Leave the distiller to do its work until the air begins to cool after sundown. The water will then condensate and begin dripping down the sides of the plastic.

You may have an additional water source but you simply have no means of purification. You can use the source to enhance the distiller by pouring water around the hole. Do not pour the water in the hole. You want the ground to filter the water and have the moisture seep from the ground into the depression you have dug. This will increase the distillers output. Under certain circumstances, you may be able to obtain up 4 liters or more of safe drinking water daily using a solar water distiller.

Backpack Essentials for Procuring Water

Knowing how to procure water is one thing however; having the essentials to do so is another:

  • Clear Plastic
  • Fixed Bladed Knife As Well As A Multi-Purpose Tool Use The Hole Punch Blade To Bore Holes
  • Trenching Tool
  • Stainless Steel Vessel To Collect And Store Water
  • Water Straws For Easier Collection Of Tree Sap



Malva neglecta


The genus name Malva means “soft” in latin due to its externally and internally soothing properties.

Specific name neglecta stand for “neglected”.

Also Known as

  • Common Mallow
  • Buttonweed
  • Cheeseplant
  • Cheeseweed
  • Dwarf Mallow
  • Roundleaf Mallow



Identification Keys

  • perennial herbaceous
  • arises from a long, slender taproot
  • can creep along the ground or grow upright
  • crinkled, rounded to heart-shaped, toothed, slightly hairy, long-stalked basal leaves
  • alternate leaves are similar to the basal leaves
  • leaves have five to seven shallow lobes
  • the leaf is notched where it connects to the leaf stalk
  • white to pale-pink or lavender flowers
  • five-petaled, long-stalked flowers arise from the leaf axils
  • the flower has a bushy column of many stamens and one pistil in the center
  • pink lines run the length of the petals
  • the petals are notched at the tips
  • fruits are round and flat like a wheel of cheese


  • lawns
  • fields
  • disturbed habitats
  • edge habitats
  • parks
  • sunny and partly shaded habitats such as gardens and parks
  • roadsides


  • Althea officinalis is larger and hard to confuse with this small plant
  • Glechoma hederacea leaves resemble Malva neglecta’s but their upper surfaces are hairy and smell minty and the stems are square

Poisonous Look-alikes

  •  none


Food Uses

Parts Used

flowers, fruits/berries, leaves

Main Uses

Potherb, Salad


  • vitamin C, iron, calcium, copper


  • leaves, flowers, and fruits, which cook in about 10 minutes, impart a pleasant, mild flavor to stews, grain dishes, and casseroles
  • thicken soups slightly.
  • fine raw, in salads.
  • devour the fruits right off the plants




Harvesting Season

  • early spring to late fall
  • all year where winters are very mild.

Harvesting Methods

  • Hold down the stems with one hand and strip of leaves, flowers, and fruit with the other.


Thermal Body

Heat loss mechanisms

Most people know that the normal temperature of the human body is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 37 degrees Celsius. But many of us don’t properly understand what it takes for our bodies to maintain this constant temperature. To survive in a cold climate when you are out in the wild, it helps to understand how the body loses heat.

Heat is produced by metabolism of food. If you’re hungry, you will not be able to create as much heat as when you stay well fed. When it’s cold out, you need to eat more food to stay warm and satisfied, because your body uses more energy just to maintain body temperature. And when you aren’t able to just stop by the grocery store for a snack, this form of heat regulation is a whole different challenge.

Anytime the temperature of your environment is lower than the temperature of your body, you will be losing heat and your body will be working to keep your body temperature at a normal level. While most of us can avoid hypothermia because we’re not out in the wild for long periods of time, and we can go home when we want to, it is not uncommon for even the most experienced hikers and backpackers do underestimate the importance of staying warm, sometimes when it is too late.

Learning About Heat Loss

We lose heat through conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation, and respiration. You can’t avoid respiration, also known as breathing, so you will always lose a little bit of heat in that way when you are out in the cold. But there are things you can do to avoid the other four ways you lose body heat.


Evaporative heat loss is what occurs when the wetness in your clothing evaporates, drawing heat away from your body. Waterproof clothing is critical, but so is ventilation and avoiding sweating by staying cool to begin with – which may seem counterintuitive. If your clothing gets sweaty and you have spares, change into your dry clothes before you get cold.

Conduction and Convection

These are two fancy words for pretty simple concepts. Conduction refers to the way heat is transferred from you to cold surfaces you are touching. If you sleep on the ground without enough padding, you will conduct heat to the ground much more quickly than if you increase the padding.

Convection refers to the way that warm air rises and moves away from you. If you wear the right clothing, you will be trapping the air you have warmed with your body instead of letting it get away.


Heat radiates away from your body the way that a campfire radiates heat. Radiation is the least of your worries, because it takes a very cold environment to cause you to radiate a dangerous amount of heat – well below zero.

Finding ways to stay dry, keep your body warm, and avoid transferring heat away from you are all very important. Knowing what to wear, what to do when you are cold, and how to avoid getting cold can save your life.