Category Archives: Hazard

Widow Maker - Outdoor Hazard

Outdoor Hazard: Widow Makers

Widow Makers” are massive branches or trees which drop down with deadly force.

Dead limbs and dead or dying trees are a potential danger even in the most unimaginable places. Be always aware of these hazardous features on the landscape, mainly in places you plan on building your camp.

What To Take Note Of

Here you will discover the 7 main kinds of flaws to consider:

  1. Dead trees and branches are unstable and may fall at any moment. Dead wood is usually brittle and dry, it has lost its elastic property and can’t flex in the wind anymore. In strong winds or during heavy rains. In a heavy rain, one side of a dead tree can become more soaked and heavier than the other side, causing the tree to fall.
  2. A split is a profound crack that extends from the bark to the wood. Splits show that the tree is slowly but undoubtedly failing!
  3. Fragile branch connections are spots where limbs aren’t firmly connected to the tree. A fragile connection develops when 2 or more, usually upright and with comparable size, branches grow so closely that bark develops within the connection. This particular in-grown bark doesn’t possess the structural strength of wood.
  4. Rotting trees may be susceptible to falling, however the presence of decay, alone, doesn’t prove that the tree is dangerous.
  5. Beech tree with burrs and canker, Ayrshire, Sc...
    Beech tree with burrs and canker, Ayrshire, Scotland. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    A canker is an area on the trunk or branch of a tree without bark or where the bark is sunken. Cankers develop from diseases or wounds. The existence of a canker raises the probability of breaking.

  6. Trees with root weakness may fall during wind storms. They could also fall with no warning during summer due to the weight of the leaves.
  7. Trees with odd shapes are fascinating to see, but may have flawed structures. Poor structures often occurs after a period of damage from stormy weather as well as in uncommon growing conditions.

During a storm any tree can be dangerous, but any tree with one or more of these defects is particularly dangerous. Build your shelter and campfire away from these dangerous trees. Keep your trails away from these hazards. Many outdoor enthusiasts have been killed from falling trees, leaving their wives widows…


Common Hiking Dangers and How To Prevent Them

Hiking is a summertime activity enjoyed by families and individuals all around the world. Even an activity as casual and seemingly harmless as hiking in the woods has its dangers though. Below are three of the most common dangers encountered while hiking and tips on how to prevent them.


It might seem like common sense, but it really is surprising how many people forget to bring an adequate amount of water when they go on a camping trip. Many campsites have water spigots these days, but it is always smart to bring along an extra jug or two. In addition, it is always a good idea to bring a water bottle (or maybe even two of them) along if you venture onto the trails for a day hike. The human body can become dehydrated in as little as 3 hours in the heat so it is essential to have something to constantly sip on.

Getting Lost

It’s all too easy to get lost when you’re in the woods. If you’re hiking with children, then it is especially important to teach them to recognize area landmarks. It is also a good idea to never leave a marked trail. Urge your children not to wander around if they become lost and to stay in one spot.

Carrying a whistle is also an intelligent thing to do as it can lead rescuers towards you if you wander off on your own.

Proper Clothing & Equipment

Weather can be a fickle thing, especially in the wilderness. Oftentimes, nighttime is much colder than people expect. In addition, even the sunniest of summer months can bring on unexpected rainstorms. It is always smart to be prepared for all sorts of weather conditions while on a hiking trip. Warm clothes, waterproofs, and a rain cover are essential even for a summertime foray into the wilderness.

Hiking trips are all about fun and that is why it is so important to be prepared and prevent common hiking dangers. The above three tips will help ensure that your hiking trip remains fun while staying safe.

mosquito bite

How to Treat Insect Bites with Household Items

If you enjoy spending time outdoors, then you’re probably tired of insects spoiling your fun. Insect bites are not only uncomfortable but can be dangerous if left untreated. You can treat insect bites with commercial products, but home remedies may work just as well. If you prefer natural treatments, then a quick check of your refrigerator or cupboards is usually all it takes.

Rubbing Alcohol

While several household items such as toothpaste or banana peels will relieve the itching associated with insect bites, rubbing alcohol has the added benefit of being antibacterial. If you don’t have any rubbing alcohol, then vinegar also kills germs and is a good substitute. To reduce swelling, use an onion or an ice pack, but be sure to call a doctor if the swelling worsens. This may indicate an allergic reaction.

Baking Soda

Combining vinegar or water with baking soda will not only relieve itching but can help to remove stingers. If you’re squeamish, then this method is also much less painful than using tweezers.

Whether you’re camping, hiking or just hanging out in the backyard, insects can ruin your day. Learning to treat insect bites will help to ensure your outdoor activities are as fun and safe as possible.


In Case of an Earthquake: What You Need to Know and Why

In school, many young students are taught a few basics about an earthquake:

  • There’s a lot of shaking going on from under the ground.
  • It’s caused when two big plates under the layers of the earth suddenly bump into each other.
  • Their jagged edges get stuck on the fractures of the fault line, releasing huge vibrations.

In adult terms, an earthquake occurs through the constant motion of the earth’s surface. This motion produces buildup and releases stress stored in rocks at and near the earth’s surface. Earthquakes are the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth as this energy is let go.

The bizarre thing, is that an earthquake doesn’t usually last more than one minute, but can leave so much destruction behind and loss of life in those mere 60 seconds.

Probably the most frightening aspect is that you never know when one is coming. Scientists have tried in every possible way to predict an earthquake’s arrival, but at this time, the experts have been unsuccessful.

That means, preparation is of utmost importance.

Before An Earthquake

  1. Put together an earthquake survival kit.
    • Experts say you should have enough supplies for three days, should such a disaster strike.
    • Telephones, running water, and other basics will probably not be working.
    • Have a gallon of water per person each day.
    • Pack away food that doesn’t require much but a can opener, or foods that you don’t have to heat up.
    • Have a basic first aid kit and fire extinguisher.
    • Add a solar/hand-crank powered flashlight, weather band radio, & USB device charger that doesn’t require batteries for keeping smart phones up and running.
    • Have blankets, sturdy shoes or boots, clothing, and cash on hand, and a few tools for repairs.
    • Also pack such items in the trunk of the car, should an earthquake hit while you are traveling away from your home.
  2. Learn how to shut off water, gas, and electricity.
  3. Anchor very heavy items to the walls or floors, including furniture, major appliances, and cupboards.
  4. Think about purchasing earthquake insurance. Have this discussion with your agent.
  5. Have a plan on where to meet up with family after an earthquake strikes should you become separated.

During An Earthquake

  1. If you are outoors, stay there and get into an open area. Do not be near power lines or buildings that could topple.
  2. If you are indoors, stay indoors. Drop, cover, and hold on! Stand against an interior wall, or hide under a table. Do not be near glass, windows, mirrors, fireplaces, or tall furniture.
  3. If you are driving, stop the car, parking away from bridges, overpasses, trees, structures, power lines, etc. Stay in the car.
  4. If you are in the mountains, watch out for landslides, which can develop. Do not stand near cliffs or uneasy slopes. Get away from trees and try to look for open space.
  5. If you are at the beach, get to higher ground, because an earthquake can cause a tsunami to develop.

After An Earthquake

  1. When the shaking stops…. Check for injuries and administer first aid to those who need it.
  2. Turn on the radio. Try landlines and smart phones.
  3. Check if there are any downed power lines or fires burning. For small fires, use the fire extinguisher to put them out.
  4. Look at the gas, electric, and water lines for damage. If you find damage, shut down the valves. If you smell gas, turn the valve off and open the windows and door and leave. Report it it to authorities immediately.
  5. Check your home for structural damage. Be very careful around broken glass, big cracks in the floors and debris. Put on your emergency kit boots or sturdy shoes on to walk around in.
    Aftershocks will probably happen. Be alert.

Even if you don’t live in an earthquake risk area, you should be prepared about this unsettling, powerful act of nature, should you travel on vacation or business, and happen to be present when an earthquake strikes.

Statistics show that about 120 destructive earthquakes occur per year. That’s one every 3 days. Incredible, when you think about it. Be prepared!

family hike

5 Keys to a Safe Family Hike

Summer is here and with it comes an almost endless amount of fun outdoor activities and adventures to try with your family. For many, a favorite summertime activity is the family hike. Though hiking is a highly enjoyable family activity, heading out for the hills unprepared can have seriously bad results. It’s very important to be well-prepared before you head out so that your entire trip remains fun and safe. Below are five of the keys for a safe family hiking trip.

1. Tell Someone Where You’re Going

Even if you aren’t going hiking in a remote area, it is always smart to let a friend or family member know exactly where you are planning to be. Accidents happen, emergencies arise, and weather conditions can change quickly. If something does come up and you need help, then having someone back at home who knows of your general location is instrumental to your survival.

2. Stay on the Trail

When on a family hike, you should never leave the marked trail. For one thing, it is all too easy to become lost if you venture out into the unmarked wilderness. In addition, leaving the trail is harmful to the natural plant and animal life.

3. Bring Plenty of Water

Staying hydrated is one of the most important things that you can do when on a family hike, especially in the warm summer months. Always bring enough water for each member of your family – but not too much more than necessary. While it’s never bad to have extra water, it does weigh a lot. A litre weighs in at 1 Kg, so plan accordingly!

4. Wear Comfortable Hiking Shoes

It’s always a smart idea to wear hiking shoes on a hike. While other types of shoes or sneakers will do, they are more likely to leave your feet a blistered and painful mess. It’s especially important to fit your children with a pair of high-quality and comfortable shoes if they are going along for the hike. Children’s feet are especially sensitive and you don’t want to have to carry them down part of the trail after a long day of trekking.

5. Teach Your Children the Dangers of Wild Animals

Even if you’re hiking in a fairly populated area, there is always the chance that you might stumble upon a wild animal. Even animals as relatively tame as raccoons, can be dangerous. Make sure that your children know not to get too close to or feed any sort of animal encountered on the trail. If you are hiking in an area frequented by dangerous animals (bears, wild boar, etc), then take extra time to inform your children what to do in a situation involving one of them.


Family hikes are a great way to spend a summer’s afternoon or a weekend, but preparation is needed. The tips above should ensure that any hike you go on this summer stay fun, and, most importantly, safe.


survival skills: hiking

6 Common Hiking Injuries and How To Prepare For Them

Whether you like to hike long distances or in short spurts, you can encounter hazards along the way. Hiking trails are often located in parks and wooded areas where rocks, tree limbs, insects and lack of fresh water can all create problems for hikers.


Even the most experienced hikers can get blisters on their feet. Unfamiliar terrain and inclines add more stress to footgear. Blisters often form on heels, anklebones and on big toes when going downhill. Carry a small sheet of moleskin to cut into shape and apply to the blistered area. This action will allow you to continue your hike without undue discomfort.

Skin Injuries

Another common injury on hiking trails is the skinned knee or elbow. These injuries often occur when hikers neglect to watch the ground as they walk. Tree roots and loose rocks can cause slips and falls that break the skin. Another typical skin injury is from branches that scrape the face and neck. You can find a number of very small first-aid kits small enough to slip into your backpack that contain everything you need to treat scrapes and puncture wounds on the trail. These kits contain a variety of bandage sizes, gauge pads for cleaning wounds and antibiotic ointment in tiny packets. These kits add only a tiny amount of weight to your backpack and can be a big convenience on the trail.


Along with falls, sprains can occur on hikes when you are not paying careful attention to uneven terrain. Sprains can cause pain, tenderness, swelling and discoloration at the site. Carry an ace bandage in your backpack to help support sprained ankles or knees while on the trail. Also, carry a small container of aspirin or ibuprofen to manage pain and inflammation until you get back to civilization.

Insect Bites

Unfortunately, you can never tell when you will run into a stinging insect on hiking trails. Bees, wasps, mosquitoes and flies are just a few of the creatures that can deliver painful, itchy stings. Ensure that the first-aid kit in your backpack also contains an anti-sting medication to reduce discomfort from insect bites. These medications are available in individual dose packets and easy-to-pack pens. Always rinse and dry the bite area before applying medications. Remove stingers if necessary.


Sunburn is always a danger on long hikes in hot weather. You may have to hike through long, open area with no shade. Always apply sunscreen before you begin your hike, and re-apply the sunscreen periodically during the day. Pay special attention to re-application after sweating a lot or getting wet in streams or waterfalls. Small, easy-to-carry tubes of sunscreen are available that fit easily into backpacks and do not add extra weight.


Dehydration is the hikers worst enemy. A long strenuous hike can use up fluid reserves in the body quickly in hot weather. Sometimes, hikers miscalculate their water needs and find themselves running out of water on the trail. Bring enough water to allow you to quench your thirst every 30 minutes. Drink before you are thirsty to prevent fluid loss. Tuck a few water purification tablets into your backpack in case you run out of water and are forced to refresh yourself from a stream or creek. Signs of dehydration include increased thirst, dry mouth, dry skin, light-headedness, weakness dark-colored urine and headache. Dehydration can lead to heat stroke, a serious medical problem. Be aware of signs such as vomiting, headache, cramps, rapid pulse or confusion. Get into the shade and seek medical attention immediately.



How To Fight Dehydration

Scipio is just arrived here in Italy. Scipio is a heat wave, an extended period of extremely hot weather associated with high humidity. Heat waves are for sure by far the most deadly type of weather phenomenon, leading to heat illness. With this particular kind of weather phenomenon your first aim is to remain in shade and stay hydrated.

When you are overheated, the body dissipates heat by dilating the capillaries close to the skin to make sure that more blood may arrive at the surface. If you’re not properly hydrated, the capillaries will tighten, and you will struggle to cool off. Even more important, dehydration decreases the ability of the body to perspire and evaporate heat.

In this article i’ll describe dehydration and how to prevent it.

The Reason Why You Need Water

Water is a key concern for life. Water is necessary for each and every physiological process occurring in your body. The following are some functions that water performs:

  • water brings oxygen, nutrients, vitamins and minerals around the body.
  • the renal system employs water to flush out toxins and waste matter via pee.
  • water helps to regulate body’s temperature.
  • the respiratory system uses water to moisten air to make sure that it doesn’t inflame the sensitive lung linings.
  • water helps transmit nervous signals around the body.
  • water protects the organs and supplies lubrication to the joints

How Much Water Do You Really Require?

  • During an ordinary day you need to consume around 3 liters.
  • During a hike, it’s possible to sweat away 1 or 2 liters of water every hour.
  • In an extreme climate an average person can lose 2 to 4 liters of water per hour.
  • During cold weather, enclosed in several layers of clothing, you are probably not aware that you are losing water. Your heavy clothes absorbs the sweat that evaporates in the air. Paradoxically your need for water is as great in a cold environment as it is in a warm environment.

Dehydration Defined

Dehydration is a negative balance between fluid intake and water loss

How Does Your Body Lose Water?

Your body loses water by sweating, breathing, urinating, defecating, vomiting, crying and talking. To stay healthy, this water must be replaced.

When physical activity is minimal, nearly all fluids are lost via the urine. When activity levels are higher or the temperature is high, almost all of the water is lost through sweat.


Sweat is a mix of salt and water. It is a normal physiological process that provides a cooling effect as moisture evaporates from the surface of the skin.


It Is also a normal physiological process. You should hold it as long as possible to reduce this fluid loss from the body. For no reason ingest urine unless it has been distilled. You can rub it on the skin with a sponge, or you can piss on your shirt to help to lower your body temperature.


It can generally be avoided paying attention to the food you ingest.


It should be prevented, but it’s difficult to persuade a child of this.

Issues That Lead To Dehydration

  • Not consuming adequate fluids daily.
  • Drinking alcohol, urine, blood, or salty water.
  • Working in a hot climate – humid or dry.
  • Working in a cold climate – humid or dry.
  • Hiking to high altitudes.

Dehydration Consequences

Consider the following results of body fluid loss:

  • A 5% loss of body fluids causes thirst, weakness, irritability and nausea.
  • A 10% loss results in headache, dizziness, inability to walk, and a tingling sensation in the limbs.
  • A 15% loss results in painful urination, dim vision, swollen tongue, deafness, and a numb feeling in the skin.
  • A loss greater than 15% of body fluids may result in death.

Dehydration Symptoms

The main issue is that, the body’s dehydration alarm is not very receptive. It holds back until you’re already 2% to 5% dehydrated before ringing the thirst bell, and then shuts off too rapidly, as we have ingested only 2/3 of the fluid deficiency.

The typical indications of lack of fluids are:

  • Dark urine with a strong scent.
  • Low urine production.
  • Headache
  • Fatigue.
  • Dark, sunken eyes.
  • Emotional instability.
  • Loss of skin elasticity.
  • Thirst.

Dehydration Degree

The level of dehydration can be determined from specific indicators:

  • Minor Dehydration (3% to 5% weight loss) Thirst; tacky mucous walls (lips, mouth); normal pulse; dark urine.
  • Moderate Dehydration (5% to 10% weight loss) Thirst; dry mucous walls; small amount of dark urine; weak and rapid pulse; sunken eyes;.
  • Severe Dehydration (> 10% weight loss) Sleepiness; very dry mucous walls; no urine; no tears; sunken eyes; shock (rapid pulse or one that is very weak and difficult to feel).

Your Hydration’s Barometer

The main way of telling if you’re hydrated is the color of urine:

  • clear like gin to pale-yellow urine indicates that you’re drinking enough fluids.
  • dark, yellow-colored, odoriferous urine indicates dehydration.

Remember: thirst is not a valid indication for water needs. An individual who utilizes thirst as his guide will ingest only 75% of his daily water need. The sensation of thirst declines with age.

Prevent Dehydration

Maintaining yourself well hydrated demands a consistent and aware effort. The loss of performance caused by dehydration is not really something you aim for in a survival situation. In a hot climate, water becomes a life-threatening issue in just few hours, but in most temperate climate, you generally have 3 days before the deficit of water completely incapacitate you. The moment you believe you are in trouble, apply water discipline: minimize water usage in everything you do.


  • Drink plenty of water to keep a urine production of at least 0.5 liter every day.
    • Below 38 °C, take in 0.5 liter of water every hour.
    • Above 38 °C, consume 1 liter of water every hour.
  • Substitute the water as you lose it
  • Consume small quantities of water at regular periods of time to fight dehydration. Consuming water at short intervals aids your body stay cool and reduces perspiration. Even if your water stock is minimal, sipping water frequently helps keep your body cooler and lower water loss through perspiration.
  • In case you are under mental and physical pressure or perhaps at the mercy of extreme conditions, raise your intake of water.
  • The body functions more proficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized. Never try to do heavy work the 1st hot day that arrives or during the initial cold days.
  • Spare perspiration not water. Limit sweating activities but drink a lot of water.
  • Preserve your fluids by limiting the activity during the heat of day.
  • Eat foods with high-water content such as fruits and veggies.
  • Always drink plenty of water while eating. Water is required as an element of the digestive process and can cause dehydration. If you have little or no water to drink, consider minimizing your current protein consumption, as protein requires a lot of water to digest. If you have no water, you must not eat at all.
  • Stay away from alcohol consumption as alcohol increases fluid losses.
  • Minimize caffeine intake as caffeine raises fluid losses.
  • Stay away from salty meals as salt increases fluid demands.
  • Do not ration water: keep water in your belly where it is readily available for employ when necessary.
  • Make the most of all rest stops to drink water. Take in slowly, drink small sips and keep the water inside your mouth for a little before ingesting.
  • Fill up your water containers at virtually any chance.

What To Drink

Cool water, without any artificial additives, is the perfect beverage to replenish yourself. Cold fluids tend to be easily absorbed from the digestive system.


With higher deficits of water you begin to have difficulties since you are losing the salts called electrolytes more rapidly than you are taking them in through fluids and meals. While a normal diet regime usually can replace these losses, in extreme heat extra resources must be supplied.
One fix for this problem is to dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of salt in a liter of water. This will make a concentration that the body can easily absorb. Nevertheless, a healthy diet is crucial to supply other electrolytes; eating well is vital whenever you are losing excessive amount of water.

Remember, water and electrolytes are lost during sweating, so both must be replaced.

Help Others

When curing someone with dehydration, moist his lips first and check if there is a gag reflex (swallowing). Dispense exclusively small sips. When providing treatment, be sure that the person is resting in any available cover from the sun.

Headache is often an early indication of dehydration. The pain is experienced on both sides of the head and it is generally worsened when the person stands up from lying down. Sleeping and consuming a minimum of 1 to 2 liters of water should alleviate the pain.


You have to be very intense in your quest for water while you have the energy. Heat stroke and dehydration are not a joke.

survival skills: raw meat

Eating Raw Meat. Is it Safe?

Have you ever seen Bear Grylls eating raw meat in his TV shows? Generally, he’s lost in a wild place and  he chooses to hunt and set some traps or he finds an already dead animal.At this point, all he has to do is eating this food. He could set up a fire and prepare food but this act could take him one hour or more, so he decide to consume it uncooked. Is it a savvy move?

Eating Parasites and Bacteria!

Even if meat you procure in the great outdoors may seem better compared to what you purchase in the supermarket, that does not mean it’s sufficiently safe to eat uncooked due to the presence of parasites and bacteria.

Here a short list of bacteria and parasites that may be on your wild menu:

  • Trichinella worms can be carried by numerous wild mammals
  • Brucellosis
  • Sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei; Notoedres douglasi) Meat is edible but heavy infestations can result in secondary bacterial infections. Avoid skin contact with carcasses as transient infections by Sarcoptes scabiei is possible.
  • Escherichia coli
  • Larva migrans (Baylisascaris procyonis). Avoid exposure to fecal material and intestinal tract contents because larvated eggs are infectious for humans if accidentally ingested.
  • Tularemia can be passed while you’re butchering the animal. It’s common in rabbits.
  • Prions. They are like the infectious agent that provokes mad cow disease. Squirrels carry prions in their bones and their brain, cooking them can’t completely destroy the prions so NEVER eat brain and marrows.
  • Lyme Disease is trasmitted by ticks (sometimes called deer ticks). You’ll get it dressing the game while eating meat is safe.

External Analysis

Inspect the outer layer of the carcass, using gloves or a stick to turn it. When performing external analysis, it’s fundamental to understand that the unhealthy look of an animal may be induced by other means, not only by transmittable disease. Aging, poor or lack of nutrition, physical injuries, and physical defects that hinder food gathering and consuming tend to be the other variables that can be responsible for this sort of appearance.

  • Do the feathers, hairs, shell or any other body coverings seem in good health?
  • Is the animal in good shape or is it rather emanciated or skinny?
  • Are unnatural issues present, including abnormal growths, deformities, or traumas?
  • Does it have other sorts of symptoms of sickness, for instance proof of diarrhea?

Internal Analysis

After the external analysis, you’ve to inspect the interior of the animal while the carcass is skinned and processed.
Make use of all senses when inspecting a carcass. Bad smells commonly arise from decaying tissues, it’s possible that come from an old injury which has abscessed. Nevertheless, the spilling of intestines content into the animal cavity in the course of extraction or from cutting during harvest can be the origin for such smell. The food eaten by the animal may even cause strong smells which are not a sign of illness. For example, mussels or sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) are meals eaten by animals that cause them to smell strange, but do not indicate potential human health risks. The look of organs and flesh is frequently damaged during the hunt and may be hard to judge. However, if you find the presence of tumors, fungal growth or abscesses in the interior, you should reject the carcass.

  • How does the animal interior smell?
  • Do any of the organs or tissues seem abnormal or irregular in appearance or color?
  • Do any of the tissues or organs seem to have abscesses or infections?
  • Are there any tissues or organs that contain what appear to be parasites?

Always Cook Raw Meat

The simple reason to cook the meat you harvest in the wild is because heat can destroy the majority of the harmful infectious agents.

Remember: in the event you discover a sick or an already dead animal, never eat its meat.

Every signs and symptoms of infections, abscesses, tumors and fungal growth outside or the carcass also suggest that you must discard it.

Another reason is that humans are genetically predisposed to eat cooked food. Uncooked meat is much more difficult to masticate and uncooked plants have too many fibers to be easily digest. Our small teeth and sensitivity to raw foods are physical proof of this adaptation.

Remember: bacteria prosper and reproduce between 4°C and 60°C. To kill bacteria you must cook meat taking the internal temperature up to 65°C.

Cooking Methods

  • Roast: Cut meat into slim strips and put them on a flat rock placed near the fire.
  • Grill: Build a spit placing two green forked twigs on both sides of a fire. Spear a piece of meat with green, thin branch then rest it in the forks just over the fire.
  • Bake: Wrap meat in green, non-poisonous, leaves. Put the package in a shallow hole and cover it with mud. Build a fire just over the mound and let the heat bake it.

Meat Storing

For any uncooked meat remains, use natural refrigeration technologies. If you’re in a snowy place, you can merely wrap up them in snow.
In a more warm place, insulate the meat with leaves and clay and submerge it in a stream or put it in a hole near a water source. This storage technique is temporary.

In future posts, i’ll describe in details methods to preserve meat with salt, by drying and by smoking.


tough times

Learn Survival Skills Before Being Forced To Use Them

Prior to decide to expose yourself to an overwhelming challenge, it would be a good edge to be aware what pressures and difficulties you’ll probably encounter and, above all, how you will deal with them. Being knowledgeable of what you’ll have to cope with will remove a large amount of doubt that can diminish your determination. As a result of discovering these challenges you’ll be able in most cases to remove them or maybe put together an approach to manage them.

The best approach to understand how you will act in response an event is to go through it. Your life on the Earth is a learning curve that imbues you with know-how. Equipped with wisdom and experience you will survive all situations.

How To Gain Experience

You can acquire experience and learn how you react by pushing yourself to the limit while being rigorously supervised. The practice should be as challenging as, or possibly tougher than, the real scenario.

It’s essential to put the hard work in which allows to wipe out every worries that may endanger your ability to succeed, for example: am i healthy enough? can i bring this load around? Am i proceeding in the correct direction?

When a specific thing occurs it’s of no advantage  declaring: “I wished I’d succeeded in doing so, or I should have performed so”.

Therefore comprehending your whole body will significantly allow you to triumph over trouble. There are numerous challenges to take care of, all demanding totally different answers: how would you react when fatigued? And could you think while completely soaked and chilled? You must ask yourself questions like these.

Learning how you deal with food craving, what it means being deprived of sleep or the way you behave when dehydrated. Can you really overcome suffering, and in what way would you are affected by fear? How does the cold weather influence you and also what exactly is your ability to tolerate high temperatures? Know the answers prior to being exposed to these hard questions.

Pain and Fear Are Valuable Assets

Many people experience fear and pain as a negative aspect, while the truth is they’re beneficial survival resources. Without these kind of emotions you would do dumb things, and pay for outcomes. Fear prevents you doing something you are not sure of, as well as makes you think before you take action. Practical knowledge triumphs over fear and when you are aware of the dangers and potential risks you can take into account the required safety measures to overcome the challenge.

Pain is Awareness

Pain despite the fact that is unpleasant is the manner your body cries for help. It brings awareness to an injured part to avoid even further damage. If you understand what is creating the suffering and above all how you can take care of the injury, you can prevail over this, or reduce the effects of it.

Fear is Your Best Friend

Don’t attempt to conceal your fears! It is absolutely nothing to be ashamed of. The instant you are doing something hazardous without receiving a buzz, it’s time to stop that activity. Fear makes you review your procedures and pay more attention.

Loneliness and solitude should be confronted. It’s best to have a friend with you but the truth is you have to be ready to depend on yourself when the need arises.

Remember: you can deceive others about how great you’re but you can’t trick yourself.

An individual in unfamiliar territory or encountering a whole new problem can let his imagination gallop. This may lead to irrational behavior with severe repercussions. Practical knowledge will certainly strengthen self belief providing you with confidence and educating your thoughts.

The Dark Side of Fear

Panic is the dark side of fear. If it’s not controlled fear can cause panic and all is shed. Fear can paralyze you and cloud your thinking. When faced with a surprising challenge, take control of your emotions by breathing. Stand upright, feet at shoulder width, breathe through the nose counting to ten. Retain the breath for around 10 secs then exhale intentionally with the mouth to a 10 count. This method slows everything down letting you to put things in perspective.

Scenario planning

Invest some time to imagine a specific scenario, trying to find all the potential issues. Ask yourself “what wouldl I act if this takes place?”. Picture the worse probable situation and come up with an answer. Create a backup plan that you can carry out if things go wrong. In this way you will not be trapped: it’s whenever you don’t deal with the problems that errors and injuries occur. Failing to plan is planning to fail.

Know thyself

Study your body and cultivate your sensory faculties. After some time you possibly can develop a 6th sense which keeps you safe and able to make the right choices. You discover a feel for the land; can easily predict the weather, evaluate distances, and detect potential dangers. Every time you feel a hunch or get an uneasy sensation, look closely at these because they could save your life.

A Progressive Learning Curve

First learn how to survive at tepid latitudes in all weather conditions. The cold weather is the toughest to survive in. It dulls your body and mind and any error is irreparable. High mountain ranges are generally without life and troubles get greater with elevation.

By exiting from your comfort zone you soon understand the fundamentals and learn new skills.

Once again it’s just with training that you’ll acquire these survival skills that can be employed everywhere, not only in the outdoors.



Survival Skills: How to Purify Water

Water is essential to human life. A person cannot go longer than three days without hydration. A person that does not receive liquid of some sort will, within three days exhibit signs of dehydration. Soon that person will die. Many people do not think about hydration on a daily basis. People get water from their food and juices, such as Gatorade and other drinks like colas and coffee. Safe drinking water for the most part, is taken for granted because in industrialized nations, there is not a lack of it. You must learn how to filter and purify water to keep yourself and family alive during a crisis, or when in a survival situation such as being lost or stranded in the wilderness.

Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococci Are Common Bacteria Found In Water

The water that flows from any household tap is treated and purified to remove bacteria and metals such as lead. The water that is treated generally comes from reservoirs and lakes. The same water untreated can be found inrivers, lakes and ponds.

Filter Water before purifying

Ideally, you will have a way to filter the water. Charcoal and coffee filters are an excellent way to filter water. Have water filtering in mind when packing your survival backpack. Cloth such as a tee-shirt or piece of flannel or even cheesecloth can be used, as well.  A small stainless steel bowl is recommended. Charcoal placed in the coffee filter is the ideal filtering medium for water, it removes heavy metals and other contaminates. However, water filtered with charcoal will still need to be purified to ensure all the bacteria are destroyed. Activated charcoal can be purchased or charcoal as a filtering medium can be made from burning hardwoods.


  1. Make your own charcoal right in camp. Use only hardwoods such as maple, hickory or oak. Pull the wood from the fire when it looks like charcoal. If possible, cover the wood with ashes to smother the fire otherwise; it will simply burn to ashes. Use sand or soil if you do not have enough ash. Once cooled, rinse the ash or dirt off, crush the charcoal and fill a tin can with a coffee filter in the bottom, pouring the charcoal into the filter. Punch a small hole in the bottom of the can to allow the filtered water to drain into another container to be treated or boiled.
  2. Dip with one vessel and filter into another vessel such as an empty water bottle. The cup or bottle used to dip the contaminated water will have bacteria and contaminates at the drink line. Filter the water so the second container’s drink line is not contaminated.

Methods to Purify Water to Make It Safe for Human Consumption

  • Boiling (my preferred method)
  • 2% liquid iodine  (aka tincture of iodine)
  • Typical household 5% Chlorine Bleach Unscented

Water that is safe to drink is called potable water. You may see containers that state they are safe to store potable water or containers that state not to be used for potable water. Containers that are safe to store water in include a well-rinsed milk jug, bottled water containers, vinegar jugs and well-rinsed soda containers. Essentially any container that was used to package food items is considered food safe, and can be used generally to store or transport water.

It is recommended to treat as large a volume as possible at one time. Your water source may dry up, or you may have to vacate your camp in a hurry. Therefore, having purified water stockpiled allows you to travel with purified water.

How to Purify Water by Boiling

Prior to boiling, you should filter as much debris and sediment from the water as you can. You will need the means to start a fire and you must have a vessel in which to boil the water. The water must boil rapidly for at least one minute. Boiling water will cause a loss of water through evaporation, so boiling longer than one minute will cause you to lose water volume. Before drinking, you must let the water cool. Protect the water from contamination by any means possible. Boiled water will have a very bland taste. To enhance the flavor of boiled water or water treated with iodine or bleach, you can add tea plants as mint. Add the enhancements after the water has cooled.

Water that has been poisoned or contaminated with chemicals is not safe to drink even after boiling, treating with iodine or with chlorine bleach. If you suspect your water source is chemically contaminated you must find another source.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using 2% Liquid Iodine Using a Standard Eyedropper as a Measurement

Once again, the water must be filtered to remove sediment and other debris. The iodine will not work as well if the water is extremely cloudy from debris or sediment. The ratio is based on liters. The ratio for iodine is five drops per liter.  If after filtering, the water is still cloudy, you can double the ratio but do not add more than 10 drops per liter. Shake the sealed container well and let set for at least 30 minutes. Tincture of iodine typically comes packaged with its own dropper.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using Chlorine Bleach

The ratio for chlorine bleach is also based on liters. When using five percent chlorine bleach, which is found in most homes, add two drops per liter. If cloudy after filtering, double the amount. Never exceed 4 drops of chlorine bleach per liter. If the chlorine bleach you are using is less than five percent such as one percent chlorine, use 10 drops per liter, never exceeding 20 drops per liter. Some chlorine bleach can contain between 7 and 10 percent chlorine, if this is the case, only use one drop per liter and do not add more than two drops per liter. The water once treated must set for at least 30 minutes. Do not use the dropper from the iodine bottle. Purchase and carry an eyedropper specifically for the bleach.