Tag Archives: decongestant

Sage - Salvia Officinalis

A Sage In The Garden: Salvia officinalis

Name

 

Common sage
Common sage (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The genus name, Salvia, comes from the Latin verb “salvare” (to save but also to cure).

Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) ...
Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) – Lamiaceae; Flower Français : sauge officinale Latina: Salvia officinalis – Lamiaceae (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The specific name, officinalis, refers to this plant’s medicinal use.

Also Known as

  • sage
  • common sage
  • garden sage
  • golden sage
  • kitchen sage
  • true sage
  • culinary sage
  • dalmatian sage
  • broadleaf sage

 

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

leaves

Actions

antimicrobial, astringent, antiseptic, decongestant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, expectorant, tonic, digestive, antioxidant, rejuvenative, diuretic, phytoestrogenic, antihydrotic, carminative, cholagogue, vasodilator

Systems

Digestion

  • enhances appetite and digestive function
  • facilitates assimilation of fats
  • calms tension and colic
  • alleviates bloating and wind
  • decreases blood sugar levels
  • reduces excessive salivation, as in Parkinson’s disease

Mental and emotional

  • decreases anxiety
  • raises mood

Respiratory system

  • good for catarrh, common colds and upper body infections

Immune system

  • beneficial in the treatment of cold, flu, fevers, sore throats and chest infections
  • effective against candida, herpes simplex type 2 and influenza virus II
  • great for arthritis and gout

Urinary system

  • removes toxins via the kidneys

Reproductive system

  • decreases excessive lactation
  • ideal for menopausal problems such as night sweats and insomnia
  • balances hormones and it is antispasmodic for irregular and painful periods

Externally

  • apply as antiseptic lotion for cuts, burns, insect bites, skin problems, ulcers and sunburn
  • gargle for sore throats
  • mouthwash for inflamed gums and mouth ulcers
  • apply leaves to reduces toothache
  • use poultice for sprains, swellings and ulcers

Caution

  • may be toxic in large dosage or over a prolonged period
  • avoid in pregnancy and breast-feeding
  • avoid with epilepsy

 

rubus idaeus - raspberry

Rubus idaeus

Name

Rubus is a latin name meaning bramble. Idaues is an adjective and means “of Mount Ida”, a sacred mountain associated with the mother goddess in the deepest layers of pre-Greek myth.

Also Known as

  • raspberry
  • wild raspberry
  • red raspberry

 


 

Identification Keys

  • arching or erect shrub
  • multiple stems up to 1 m
  • purplish-red stems
  • stem has curved prickles
  • leaves are alternated
  • leaf is palmate-compound with 3-5 (sometimes 7) toothed, pointed, oval leaflets
  • leaflet is bright green on  upper side and minty-greenish white underneath
  • leaflet is long 3.5-6.5 cm and about half as wide
  • short, loose raceme
  • white, 5-petaled flower
  • round, downy, red raspberries in summer and fall

Seasons

  • fruits: mid-summer to late summer (sometimes there’s a second season from mid-fall to late fall)
  • leaves: spring to fall

Habitat

  • moist, sunny or partly shady habitats
  • thickets
  • hedges
  • overgrown fields
  • edges or openings of woods
  • trail sides

Poisonous Look-alikes

Poison ivy can resemble raspberry, with which it share territory; raspberry stem almost always has thorns whereas poison ivy stem is smooth. Also, the 3-leaflet pattern of some raspberry leaves changes as the plant grows: leaves produced later in the season have 5/7 leaflets rather than 3. Raspberry leave has many fine teeth along the edge, the top surface is very wrinkled where the veins are, and the bottom of the leaves is light minty-greenish white. Poison ivy leave is all green. The stem of poison ivy is brown and cylindrical, while raspberry stem can be green or purplish red, is squared in cross-section, and has prickles.

  • Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
  • Toxicodendron diversilobum (poison oak) – West Coast of North America
  • Toxicodendron pubescens (poison oak) – Eastern United States

 


 

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

leaf, fruit

Actions

anti-inflammatory, astringent, decongestant, oxytocic, antiemetic, opthalmic, antioxidant, antiseptic, antidiarrheal, diaphoretic, diuretic, choleretic, hypoglycemic

Systems

Digestion

  • protects guts lining from irritation and inflammation
  • relieves nausea and suppress vomiting
  • astringent for diarrhea, especially for children
  • normalizes blood sugar level

Respiratory system

  • beneficial for sore throats, colds, flu and catarrh

Immune system

  • anti-microbial, inhibits pathogens such as Candida albicans

Reproductive system

  • relieves nausea in pregnancy
  • prevents miscarriage
  • tones uterin and pelvic muscles to prepare childbirth (taken as infusion of leaves, in the last 3 months of pregnacy)
  • speeds the healing after the birth
  • stimulates the flow of breast milk
  • fruits are useful to combat anaemia in pregnancy

Externally

  • gargle for sore throats and tonsillitis
  • use as mouthwash for mouth ulcers and inflamed gums
  • apply poultice or lotion on sores, minor cuts and burns
  • useful for conjunctivitis

 


Food Uses

Parts Used

Fruit, leaf

Main Uses

Raw/cooked fruit, Tea

Nutrition

  • source of minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium
  • vitamin A
  • vitamin B1, B2, B6
  • vitamin C
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K
  • pantothenic acid
  • folate

Cooking

  • eat directly or add in any dessert recipe
  • make jams and jellies
  • milkshake
  • fruit salads
  • pies

 

Rosmarinus officinalis - rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis

Name

The latin name Rosmarinus is a compound word: “Ros” means “Dew” and “Marinus” means “of the sea”. So Rosmarinus stands for “Dew of the Sea” as the plant grows well near the sea-coast and sea-foam sprays upon it.
Officinalis (meaning ‘of the workshop’) is a common species name and it denotes medicinal plants.

Also Known as

  • rosemary
  • sea dew
  • our lady’s rose
  • rosemarine
  • compass weed
  • incensier
  • mary’s mantle
  • old man
  • polar plant

 

Identification Keys

  • perennial herb
  • bushy evergreen shrub
  • height up to 2m
  • aromatic linear, leathery, with enrolled margins leaves
  • leaf size: 2-4cm × 1.2-3.5mm
  • leaf color: bright green and wrinkled above, white-tomentose beneath,
  • stalkless leaves
  • inflorescence and flower stalks with star-shaped hairs almost hairless and distinctly veined
  • calyx 3-4mm when young, later 5-7mm,
  • corolla 10-12mm, pale blue (rarely pink or white)
  • nutlets brown

Bloom Time

  • summer

Habitat

  • full sun
  • sandy, well-limed soil

 


 

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

Aerial parts

Actions

diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogic, nervine, antioxidant, cholagogue, thymoleptic, decongestant, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, circulatory stimulant, febrifuge, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, diuretic

Systems

Digestion

  • protects the gut  from irritation and inflammation
  • reduces diarrhea
  • active against infections
  • stimulates appetite
  • relieves flatulence
  • aids digestion
  • enhances elimination
  • clears toxins

Circulation

  • stimulates circulation, improving peripheral blood flow
  • reduces inflammation and muscle tension
  • reduces migraines and headaches
  • used for arteriosclerosis, chilblains and varicose veins

Respiratory system

  • dispels infection
  • helpful in asthma
  • used for fevers, catarrh, sore throats, colds, flu and chest infections

Mental and emotional

  • improves concentration and memory
  • calms anxiety
  • lifts depression
  • relieves exhaustion and insomnia

Immune system

  • enhance immunity
  • detoxifies poisons
  • relieves arthritis and gout

Urinary system

  • enhances elimination of wastes

Reproductive system

  • reduces heavy menstrual bleeding
  • relieves dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain)

Externally

  • massage the skin for joint pain, headaches and poor concentration

Caution

  • avoid in pregnancy

 


Food Uses

Parts Used

Flowers, Leaves

Main Uses

Seasoning, Tea

Nutrition

  • rich source of minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, copper, and magnesium
  • very good amounts of vitamin A
  • exceptionally rich in vitamin B
  • fresh leaves are good source of  vitamin C

Cooking

  • enhances the flavor of any savory or sweet food
  • the leaves flavor is quite strong, use it only sparingly
  • use it to season lamb, rabbit, veal, pork, sausages, poultry, egg dishes, fish, pickles and shellfish
  • flavor oil by adding a few sprigs
  • add to jellies, fruit jams, and cookies
  • use for add extra special flavor to dishes that need asparagus, cauliflower, broccoli, eggplants, green beans and peas, zucchini and potatoes
  • use in breads and biscuits
  • soak dried Rosmarinus officinalis in hot water before adding it to uncooked foods
  • the flowers can be candied, preserved, or added to jellies, honey, wine or vinegar

 

Harvesting

  • harvest the rosemary needle leaves throughout the summer
  • in autumn, pick the leaves in the morning for best oil-content and quality
  • use the fresh leaves in dishes immediately after picking them, or dry the leaves

 


Thymus-vulgaris

Thymus vulgaris

Name

Thymus comes from greek verb “to perfume” or “to burn incense”, indicating that this plant was used in sacrifices.
The specific name vulgaris means a common plant.

Also Known as

  • thyme
  • common thyme
  • English thyme
  • summer thyme
  • winter thyme
  • French thyme
  • garden thyme

 


 

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

flowering aerial parts

Actions

antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, antiseptic, antibacterial, decongestant, circulatory stimulant, relaxant, immunostimulant, antioxidant, antifungal

Systems

Digestion

  • enhances appetite and digestion
  • relieves wind, colic, irritable bowel syndrome and spastic colon
  • protects the gut lining from irritation and antibiotics
  • reduces diarrhea

Circulation

  • prevents chilblains
  • combats the effect of cold in winter

Mental and emotional

  • strengthening tonic for physical and mental exhaustion
  • relieves tension, anxiety and depression
  • enhances concentration and memory

Respiratory system

  • helps resolve colds, sore throats, flu and chest infections such as bronchitis, pneunomia and pleurisy
  • relieves asthma and whooping-cough

Immune system

  • has powerful antibacterial and antifungal effects thanks to its volatile oils
  • increases longevity
  • increases perspiration
  • reduces fever

Urinary system

  • relieves water retention

Reproductive system

  • relieves dysmenorrhea pains
  • useful in infections such as candida and salpingitis

Externally

  • disinfects cuts and wounds
  • useful for aching joints and muscular pain
  • gargle used for sore throats
  • douche used for vaginal infections

Caution

  • avoid large amounts in pregnancy

 


 

Plantago major

Plantago major

Name

Plantago means “footprint” and it refers to the foot-like shape of the leaf. The specific name “major” means ‘larger’ referring to the leaf size, probably in contrast with other Plantago plants as Plantago lanceolata.

Also Known as

  • greater plantain
  • common plantain
  • soldier’s herb
  • white man’s foot
  • broadleaf plantain
  • broad-leaved plantain
  • roadweed
  • wayside plantain
  • lamb’s foot
  • snakeroot
  • waybread
  • healing blade
  • hen plant

Identification Keys

  • perennial weed
  • makes a tough, leafy rosette
  • leaves all in tuft at base of plant
  • leaves 10-30 cm, oval
  • leaves not spear-shaped
  • strongly veined leaves, main veins are parallel
  • pencil-shaped flowering spikes about 15 cm
  • short, flattened, purple leaf stalk
  • flowers 2-3 mm
  • 4 oval, brownish, papery sepals
  • sepals are shorter than petals
  • 4 greenish, yellowish-white petals
  • petals form a tube beneath oval lobes
  • 4 long, protruding stamens, 1 stigma
  • flower-head not covered by hood
  • fruit is a 2-4 mm oblong capsule
  • fruit has 6-13 elliptical flattened seeds
  • each seed is 1-1.5mm
  • the top of the fruit detaches to release the seeds
  • sap is not milky

Bloom Time

  • May-September

Habitat

  • grassy place, cultivated or waste ground
  • spreads through most temperate regions of the world
  • requires moist soil
  • needs a sunny or partly shaded position
  • can withstand temperatures down to -15°C

Look-alikes

It can be confused with other Plantago plants:

  • Plantago lanceolata (long-leaf plantain). It has narrower leaves.

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

leaf, seed

Actions

astringent, alterative, diuretic, vulnerary, demulcent, refrigerant, detoxifying, decongestant, expectorant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral

Systems

Digestion

  • counters inflammation and irritation in the bowels and stomach
  • helps in gastritis, diarrhea and colitis
  • reduces colic and spasm
  • bulk laxative for constipation (taken as a tea of seeds)

Respiratory system

  • relieves colds, sinusitis, bronchial congestion, hay fever and asthma depressing mucous secretion
  • prevents ear infections and glue ear
  • soothes cough reflex
  • protects mucosae from irritation

Immune system

  • reduces swelling and inflammation
  • stops bleeding
  • promotes wound healing
  • reduces fever and infections
  • clears toxins
  • has antiviral action against herpes viruses and adenoviruses

Urinary system

  • helps in urinary tracts infections

Reproductive system

  • reduces excessive menstrual bleeding
  • useful for prostatitis enlargement

Externally

  • cures cuts, stings and insect bites

Harvesting

  • pull off the leaves
  • strip the immature, green fruits with your fingers
  • gather the seeds inside the mature fruits

Achillea_millefolium_paint

Achillea millefolium

Name

The name “Achillea” commemorates the greek hero Achilles who used yarrow to heal the wounds of his soldiers. The specific name “millefolium” means ‘thousand leaves’, a perfect name to describe the finely divided leaves.

Also Known as

  • yarrow
  • milfoil
  • thousand-leaf
  • bloodwort
  • old man’s pepper

 


 

Identification Keys

  • bushy perennial herb
  • leaves finely divided into narrow segments
  • thin, fern-like leaves resembling a pipe cleaner or small feathers
  • leaves arranged spirally on stem
  • dark green leaves
  • height: 8 cm – 65 cm, width: 60 cm (2 ft)
  • sap not milky
  • flower-head in flat-topped clusters
  • flower-head with flat outer florets, tubular inner florets
  • white to pinkish-white daisy-like flowers
  • flowers enclosed by bracts; no sepals; 5 petals form a tube; 5 stamens and 1 stigma
  • flower-head without collar beneath
  • fruits and floret base without a parachute
  • 1.5-2 mm long, flattened, shiny, nut-like fruit; retains the seed
  • strongly scented

Bloom Time

  • June-November

Habitat

  • fields, hedges, meadows, roadsides, gravelly areas, waste places
  • dry or poor soils but also found in moist areas
  • grows in low to high elevations

Look-alikes

You can confuse common yarrow with other plants with dissected leaves:

  • Mayweed chamomile
  • Pineapple-weed
  • Wild carrot. It tends to grow in more of a rosette with leaves that are more pinnatafid than yarrow.
  • Poison hemlock
  • Fennel

 


 

Medicine Uses

Parts Used

Aerial parts

Actions

diaphoretic, diuretic, astringent, digestive, bitter tonic, hepatic, antimicrobial, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic, antihistaminic, emmenagogic, expectorant, anticatarrhal, hemostatic, styptic, vulnerary, alterative

Systems

Digestion

  • stimulates appetite, aids digestion and absorption
  • relieves wind, spasm and indigestion
  • astringent tannins protect the gut from irritation and infection; helpful in diarrhea and inflammatory issues

Circulation

  • taken in hot tea, it promotes sweating and reduces fevers
  • lowers blood pressure, improves circulation
  • relieves leg cramps and varicose veins

Respiratory system

  • it relieves colds and congestion, taken in hot tea with mint and elderflower
  • antihistamine effect is useful in treating allergies

Immune system

  • volatile oils and luteolin have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects
  • relieves arthritis, allergies and autoimmune problems
  • stimulates blood flow to the skin and brings out the rash in eruptive infections such as measles and chickenpox
  • clears toxins by aiding elimination through the skin and kidneys

Urinary system

  • diuretic, relieves irritable bladder
  • tightens muscles, helping incontinence

Reproductive system

  • regulates menstrual cycle
  • eases menopause change
  • relieves premenstrual syndrome and heavy bleeding
  • speeds up childbirth and aids in expelling the afterbirth
  • stimulates lactose production

Externally

  • tannins and silica speed healing of cuts, wounds, ulcers, burns, varicose veins,
  • hemorrhoids and skin conditions
  • infusions used as vaginal douche, skin lotion and mouthwash for gingivitis
  • a little of yarrow tincture on a tissue, stuffed up the nostril, stops a bleeding nose

Caution

  • avoid in pregnancy and if allergic to Asteraceae
  • prolonged use can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitivity
  • avoid with anticoagulants

 


 

Harvesting

  • gather the leaves and flowers by cutting the entire stem half way down.
  • harvest after the flowers opened and when they look  vibrant.
  • tie them by their stems in small bunches and hang them out of direct sunlight.
  • when fully dry, garble them, and store in a mason jar.