Tag Archives: heat stroke

Learn To Improvise Insulation

Learn To Improvise Insulation

Learn To Improvise InsulationPracticing survival skills is important for preparedness, and one must always consider the worst possible case scenario. So envision for a moment that you are out for a hike on a beautiful day, and the weather dramatically drops to a sudden cold environment. You weren’t dressed for this, obviously, and have quite the distance between your current location and shelter. You’re worried about your survival… here’s what to do in this situation.

Utilize the natural vegetation around you as insulation, by stuffing it into your clothes and footwear. Look for light, fluffy fibers. Obviously you’re not bothered by fashion or looks, what matters is survival skills. Down from cattails or thistle, dead leaves or grass and even bark fiber will all work wonderful as insulation material to keep you warm.

These survival skills can be practiced in other environments as well. If this emergency situation were to happen in the city, you would simply use newspaper or cardboard for the same insulating effect.

The trick behind emergency insulation is to use material that creates dead air space which will keep your body warm, even better if that warmth can be maintained when getting wet is unavoidable. Maintaining body heat is one of the most important concerns with survival skills, and understanding how to create insulation in an emergency is an important step.

Make an insulated vest

This will require repurposing two old t-shirts. Simply cut off the sleeves and sew the remaining portions together to form a double vest, leaving an opening near the neck which you can use to stuff with cattail down before sewing up the top. In the spring, you’ll want to dump out the old stuffing, wash, and re-stuff but you will have an effective insulated vest for… free.

 

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dehydration

How To Fight Dehydration

Scipio is just arrived here in Italy. Scipio is a heat wave, an extended period of extremely hot weather associated with high humidity. Heat waves are for sure by far the most deadly type of weather phenomenon, leading to heat illness. With this particular kind of weather phenomenon your first aim is to remain in shade and stay hydrated.

When you are overheated, the body dissipates heat by dilating the capillaries close to the skin to make sure that more blood may arrive at the surface. If you’re not properly hydrated, the capillaries will tighten, and you will struggle to cool off. Even more important, dehydration decreases the ability of the body to perspire and evaporate heat.

In this article i’ll describe dehydration and how to prevent it.

The Reason Why You Need Water

Water is a key concern for life. Water is necessary for each and every physiological process occurring in your body. The following are some functions that water performs:

  • water brings oxygen, nutrients, vitamins and minerals around the body.
  • the renal system employs water to flush out toxins and waste matter via pee.
  • water helps to regulate body’s temperature.
  • the respiratory system uses water to moisten air to make sure that it doesn’t inflame the sensitive lung linings.
  • water helps transmit nervous signals around the body.
  • water protects the organs and supplies lubrication to the joints

How Much Water Do You Really Require?

  • During an ordinary day you need to consume around 3 liters.
  • During a hike, it’s possible to sweat away 1 or 2 liters of water every hour.
  • In an extreme climate an average person can lose 2 to 4 liters of water per hour.
  • During cold weather, enclosed in several layers of clothing, you are probably not aware that you are losing water. Your heavy clothes absorbs the sweat that evaporates in the air. Paradoxically your need for water is as great in a cold environment as it is in a warm environment.

Dehydration Defined

Dehydration is a negative balance between fluid intake and water loss

How Does Your Body Lose Water?

Your body loses water by sweating, breathing, urinating, defecating, vomiting, crying and talking. To stay healthy, this water must be replaced.

When physical activity is minimal, nearly all fluids are lost via the urine. When activity levels are higher or the temperature is high, almost all of the water is lost through sweat.

Sweat

Sweat is a mix of salt and water. It is a normal physiological process that provides a cooling effect as moisture evaporates from the surface of the skin.

Urinating

It Is also a normal physiological process. You should hold it as long as possible to reduce this fluid loss from the body. For no reason ingest urine unless it has been distilled. You can rub it on the skin with a sponge, or you can piss on your shirt to help to lower your body temperature.

Vomiting

It can generally be avoided paying attention to the food you ingest.

Crying

It should be prevented, but it’s difficult to persuade a child of this.

Issues That Lead To Dehydration

  • Not consuming adequate fluids daily.
  • Drinking alcohol, urine, blood, or salty water.
  • Working in a hot climate – humid or dry.
  • Working in a cold climate – humid or dry.
  • Hiking to high altitudes.

Dehydration Consequences

Consider the following results of body fluid loss:

  • A 5% loss of body fluids causes thirst, weakness, irritability and nausea.
  • A 10% loss results in headache, dizziness, inability to walk, and a tingling sensation in the limbs.
  • A 15% loss results in painful urination, dim vision, swollen tongue, deafness, and a numb feeling in the skin.
  • A loss greater than 15% of body fluids may result in death.

Dehydration Symptoms

The main issue is that, the body’s dehydration alarm is not very receptive. It holds back until you’re already 2% to 5% dehydrated before ringing the thirst bell, and then shuts off too rapidly, as we have ingested only 2/3 of the fluid deficiency.

The typical indications of lack of fluids are:

  • Dark urine with a strong scent.
  • Low urine production.
  • Headache
  • Fatigue.
  • Dark, sunken eyes.
  • Emotional instability.
  • Loss of skin elasticity.
  • Thirst.

Dehydration Degree

The level of dehydration can be determined from specific indicators:

  • Minor Dehydration (3% to 5% weight loss) Thirst; tacky mucous walls (lips, mouth); normal pulse; dark urine.
  • Moderate Dehydration (5% to 10% weight loss) Thirst; dry mucous walls; small amount of dark urine; weak and rapid pulse; sunken eyes;.
  • Severe Dehydration (> 10% weight loss) Sleepiness; very dry mucous walls; no urine; no tears; sunken eyes; shock (rapid pulse or one that is very weak and difficult to feel).

Your Hydration’s Barometer

The main way of telling if you’re hydrated is the color of urine:

  • clear like gin to pale-yellow urine indicates that you’re drinking enough fluids.
  • dark, yellow-colored, odoriferous urine indicates dehydration.

Remember: thirst is not a valid indication for water needs. An individual who utilizes thirst as his guide will ingest only 75% of his daily water need. The sensation of thirst declines with age.

Prevent Dehydration

Maintaining yourself well hydrated demands a consistent and aware effort. The loss of performance caused by dehydration is not really something you aim for in a survival situation. In a hot climate, water becomes a life-threatening issue in just few hours, but in most temperate climate, you generally have 3 days before the deficit of water completely incapacitate you. The moment you believe you are in trouble, apply water discipline: minimize water usage in everything you do.

Tips

  • Drink plenty of water to keep a urine production of at least 0.5 liter every day.
    • Below 38 °C, take in 0.5 liter of water every hour.
    • Above 38 °C, consume 1 liter of water every hour.
  • Substitute the water as you lose it
  • Consume small quantities of water at regular periods of time to fight dehydration. Consuming water at short intervals aids your body stay cool and reduces perspiration. Even if your water stock is minimal, sipping water frequently helps keep your body cooler and lower water loss through perspiration.
  • In case you are under mental and physical pressure or perhaps at the mercy of extreme conditions, raise your intake of water.
  • The body functions more proficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized. Never try to do heavy work the 1st hot day that arrives or during the initial cold days.
  • Spare perspiration not water. Limit sweating activities but drink a lot of water.
  • Preserve your fluids by limiting the activity during the heat of day.
  • Eat foods with high-water content such as fruits and veggies.
  • Always drink plenty of water while eating. Water is required as an element of the digestive process and can cause dehydration. If you have little or no water to drink, consider minimizing your current protein consumption, as protein requires a lot of water to digest. If you have no water, you must not eat at all.
  • Stay away from alcohol consumption as alcohol increases fluid losses.
  • Minimize caffeine intake as caffeine raises fluid losses.
  • Stay away from salty meals as salt increases fluid demands.
  • Do not ration water: keep water in your belly where it is readily available for employ when necessary.
  • Make the most of all rest stops to drink water. Take in slowly, drink small sips and keep the water inside your mouth for a little before ingesting.
  • Fill up your water containers at virtually any chance.

What To Drink

Cool water, without any artificial additives, is the perfect beverage to replenish yourself. Cold fluids tend to be easily absorbed from the digestive system.

Overhydration

With higher deficits of water you begin to have difficulties since you are losing the salts called electrolytes more rapidly than you are taking them in through fluids and meals. While a normal diet regime usually can replace these losses, in extreme heat extra resources must be supplied.
One fix for this problem is to dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of salt in a liter of water. This will make a concentration that the body can easily absorb. Nevertheless, a healthy diet is crucial to supply other electrolytes; eating well is vital whenever you are losing excessive amount of water.

Remember, water and electrolytes are lost during sweating, so both must be replaced.

Help Others

When curing someone with dehydration, moist his lips first and check if there is a gag reflex (swallowing). Dispense exclusively small sips. When providing treatment, be sure that the person is resting in any available cover from the sun.

Headache is often an early indication of dehydration. The pain is experienced on both sides of the head and it is generally worsened when the person stands up from lying down. Sleeping and consuming a minimum of 1 to 2 liters of water should alleviate the pain.

 

You have to be very intense in your quest for water while you have the energy. Heat stroke and dehydration are not a joke.


heat-illness

Summer Threats: Heat Illness

The temperature of the body is auto-regulated within very narrow limits. You’ve to  pay particular attention to whatever destabilizes this delicate balance. Heat can sentence  to death the body, pushing it over and above its capabilities . In a normal situation your inner thermostat generates sweat that evaporates and cools down the body. However, in a humid and  hot environment , evaporation is decreased and it’s necessary an extraordinary effort to keep body temperature at 36.8° ± 0.4°C.

To prevent these illnesses, make sure you keep up your body efficiency by:

  • drinking enough water
  • taking sufficient salt
  • eating adequately

Should you spend more calories than you take in, you will be more vulnerable to heat illnesses. You might lose your wish for food because of high temperature  but you should consume your required ration, arranging the more substantial meal at the cooler hours.

Roughly 75% of the human body is fluid. All chemical functions in the body occur in a water solution that helps in the elimination of toxic body waste products and plays a crucial role in the maintenance of an even body temperature. A loss of 2 liters of body fluid (around 2.5% of body weight) lessens efficiency by 25% and a loss of fluid corresponding to 15% of body weight is generally lethal.

Heat Illness Progression

  1. Deficiency of salt results in heat cramps.
  2. Lack of salt and insufficient water leads to heat exhaustion.
  3. General failure of the body’s cooling system causes heat stroke that can be lethal.

Heat Illness Symptoms

  • Sunburn: skin redness and pain, possible swelling, blisters, fever, headaches.
  • Heat cramps: muscle cramps of limbs or stomach. Profuse sweating  and excessive thirst.
  • Heat exhaustion: heavy perspiration with pale, moist, cool skin; headache, weakness, dizziness, appetite loss; heat cramps, nausea without or with vomit, accelerated respiration, confusion, prickling of the hands or feet.
  • Heat stroke: perspiration quits; red, flushed, hot dry skin.

It is vital to identify heat illness symptoms quickly. When affected by heat stroke the most harmful condition, there is an inclination for the victim to slip away from his team and try to hide in a shady and secluded area: if not discovered and treated he’ll perish.

 


Thermal Body

Heat loss mechanisms

Most people know that the normal temperature of the human body is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 37 degrees Celsius. But many of us don’t properly understand what it takes for our bodies to maintain this constant temperature. To survive in a cold climate when you are out in the wild, it helps to understand how the body loses heat.

Heat is produced by metabolism of food. If you’re hungry, you will not be able to create as much heat as when you stay well fed. When it’s cold out, you need to eat more food to stay warm and satisfied, because your body uses more energy just to maintain body temperature. And when you aren’t able to just stop by the grocery store for a snack, this form of heat regulation is a whole different challenge.

Anytime the temperature of your environment is lower than the temperature of your body, you will be losing heat and your body will be working to keep your body temperature at a normal level. While most of us can avoid hypothermia because we’re not out in the wild for long periods of time, and we can go home when we want to, it is not uncommon for even the most experienced hikers and backpackers do underestimate the importance of staying warm, sometimes when it is too late.

Learning About Heat Loss

We lose heat through conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation, and respiration. You can’t avoid respiration, also known as breathing, so you will always lose a little bit of heat in that way when you are out in the cold. But there are things you can do to avoid the other four ways you lose body heat.

Evaporation

Evaporative heat loss is what occurs when the wetness in your clothing evaporates, drawing heat away from your body. Waterproof clothing is critical, but so is ventilation and avoiding sweating by staying cool to begin with – which may seem counterintuitive. If your clothing gets sweaty and you have spares, change into your dry clothes before you get cold.

Conduction and Convection

These are two fancy words for pretty simple concepts. Conduction refers to the way heat is transferred from you to cold surfaces you are touching. If you sleep on the ground without enough padding, you will conduct heat to the ground much more quickly than if you increase the padding.

Convection refers to the way that warm air rises and moves away from you. If you wear the right clothing, you will be trapping the air you have warmed with your body instead of letting it get away.

Radiation

Heat radiates away from your body the way that a campfire radiates heat. Radiation is the least of your worries, because it takes a very cold environment to cause you to radiate a dangerous amount of heat – well below zero.

Finding ways to stay dry, keep your body warm, and avoid transferring heat away from you are all very important. Knowing what to wear, what to do when you are cold, and how to avoid getting cold can save your life.