Category Archives: Water

Dew - Safe Water

How To Collect Drinking Water From Morning Dew

What is dew?

English: Dew on a spider's web in the morning....
English: Dew on a spider’s web in the morning. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Dew is just atmospheric moisture that’s been warmed by solar radiation throughout the day. As night comes, surfaces cool and the moisture begin to accumulate on those surfaces near the ground including grasses, metal, glass, tree leaves, plastic sheeting, rain ponchos and so on.

Usually, dew won’t settle on the ground itself or on boulders and rocks since they’re still conducting heat, which does not allow the moisture to condensate. The change in temperature is what makes the moisture to accumulate. This is just like filling a glass with cold water. Drops of moisture will quickly form on the outside of the glass.

If there is a heavy cloud cover during the night, dew will not collect on surfaces. Clouds reduce radiant heat loss, which will limit moisture condensation on surfaces because they will not cool quickly enough to create condensation.

Dew Collection

To gather dew you can put a sheet of plastic or a poncho over some vegetation. Leave small depressions for the moisture to collect. You may also absorb the moisture from grasses, bushes or any other surfaces employing a clean cotton cloth, and when the cloth has absorbed as much as it can squeeze the moisture into a container or straight into the mouth.

The water obtained is generally safe to drink if the surfaces are not contaminated. Be careful when collecting dew from vegetation. You don’t wish to get dew from poison ivy or poison oak for self-evident reasons.


How To Fight Dehydration

Scipio is just arrived here in Italy. Scipio is a heat wave, an extended period of extremely hot weather associated with high humidity. Heat waves are for sure by far the most deadly type of weather phenomenon, leading to heat illness. With this particular kind of weather phenomenon your first aim is to remain in shade and stay hydrated.

When you are overheated, the body dissipates heat by dilating the capillaries close to the skin to make sure that more blood may arrive at the surface. If you’re not properly hydrated, the capillaries will tighten, and you will struggle to cool off. Even more important, dehydration decreases the ability of the body to perspire and evaporate heat.

In this article i’ll describe dehydration and how to prevent it.

The Reason Why You Need Water

Water is a key concern for life. Water is necessary for each and every physiological process occurring in your body. The following are some functions that water performs:

  • water brings oxygen, nutrients, vitamins and minerals around the body.
  • the renal system employs water to flush out toxins and waste matter via pee.
  • water helps to regulate body’s temperature.
  • the respiratory system uses water to moisten air to make sure that it doesn’t inflame the sensitive lung linings.
  • water helps transmit nervous signals around the body.
  • water protects the organs and supplies lubrication to the joints

How Much Water Do You Really Require?

  • During an ordinary day you need to consume around 3 liters.
  • During a hike, it’s possible to sweat away 1 or 2 liters of water every hour.
  • In an extreme climate an average person can lose 2 to 4 liters of water per hour.
  • During cold weather, enclosed in several layers of clothing, you are probably not aware that you are losing water. Your heavy clothes absorbs the sweat that evaporates in the air. Paradoxically your need for water is as great in a cold environment as it is in a warm environment.

Dehydration Defined

Dehydration is a negative balance between fluid intake and water loss

How Does Your Body Lose Water?

Your body loses water by sweating, breathing, urinating, defecating, vomiting, crying and talking. To stay healthy, this water must be replaced.

When physical activity is minimal, nearly all fluids are lost via the urine. When activity levels are higher or the temperature is high, almost all of the water is lost through sweat.


Sweat is a mix of salt and water. It is a normal physiological process that provides a cooling effect as moisture evaporates from the surface of the skin.


It Is also a normal physiological process. You should hold it as long as possible to reduce this fluid loss from the body. For no reason ingest urine unless it has been distilled. You can rub it on the skin with a sponge, or you can piss on your shirt to help to lower your body temperature.


It can generally be avoided paying attention to the food you ingest.


It should be prevented, but it’s difficult to persuade a child of this.

Issues That Lead To Dehydration

  • Not consuming adequate fluids daily.
  • Drinking alcohol, urine, blood, or salty water.
  • Working in a hot climate – humid or dry.
  • Working in a cold climate – humid or dry.
  • Hiking to high altitudes.

Dehydration Consequences

Consider the following results of body fluid loss:

  • A 5% loss of body fluids causes thirst, weakness, irritability and nausea.
  • A 10% loss results in headache, dizziness, inability to walk, and a tingling sensation in the limbs.
  • A 15% loss results in painful urination, dim vision, swollen tongue, deafness, and a numb feeling in the skin.
  • A loss greater than 15% of body fluids may result in death.

Dehydration Symptoms

The main issue is that, the body’s dehydration alarm is not very receptive. It holds back until you’re already 2% to 5% dehydrated before ringing the thirst bell, and then shuts off too rapidly, as we have ingested only 2/3 of the fluid deficiency.

The typical indications of lack of fluids are:

  • Dark urine with a strong scent.
  • Low urine production.
  • Headache
  • Fatigue.
  • Dark, sunken eyes.
  • Emotional instability.
  • Loss of skin elasticity.
  • Thirst.

Dehydration Degree

The level of dehydration can be determined from specific indicators:

  • Minor Dehydration (3% to 5% weight loss) Thirst; tacky mucous walls (lips, mouth); normal pulse; dark urine.
  • Moderate Dehydration (5% to 10% weight loss) Thirst; dry mucous walls; small amount of dark urine; weak and rapid pulse; sunken eyes;.
  • Severe Dehydration (> 10% weight loss) Sleepiness; very dry mucous walls; no urine; no tears; sunken eyes; shock (rapid pulse or one that is very weak and difficult to feel).

Your Hydration’s Barometer

The main way of telling if you’re hydrated is the color of urine:

  • clear like gin to pale-yellow urine indicates that you’re drinking enough fluids.
  • dark, yellow-colored, odoriferous urine indicates dehydration.

Remember: thirst is not a valid indication for water needs. An individual who utilizes thirst as his guide will ingest only 75% of his daily water need. The sensation of thirst declines with age.

Prevent Dehydration

Maintaining yourself well hydrated demands a consistent and aware effort. The loss of performance caused by dehydration is not really something you aim for in a survival situation. In a hot climate, water becomes a life-threatening issue in just few hours, but in most temperate climate, you generally have 3 days before the deficit of water completely incapacitate you. The moment you believe you are in trouble, apply water discipline: minimize water usage in everything you do.


  • Drink plenty of water to keep a urine production of at least 0.5 liter every day.
    • Below 38 °C, take in 0.5 liter of water every hour.
    • Above 38 °C, consume 1 liter of water every hour.
  • Substitute the water as you lose it
  • Consume small quantities of water at regular periods of time to fight dehydration. Consuming water at short intervals aids your body stay cool and reduces perspiration. Even if your water stock is minimal, sipping water frequently helps keep your body cooler and lower water loss through perspiration.
  • In case you are under mental and physical pressure or perhaps at the mercy of extreme conditions, raise your intake of water.
  • The body functions more proficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized. Never try to do heavy work the 1st hot day that arrives or during the initial cold days.
  • Spare perspiration not water. Limit sweating activities but drink a lot of water.
  • Preserve your fluids by limiting the activity during the heat of day.
  • Eat foods with high-water content such as fruits and veggies.
  • Always drink plenty of water while eating. Water is required as an element of the digestive process and can cause dehydration. If you have little or no water to drink, consider minimizing your current protein consumption, as protein requires a lot of water to digest. If you have no water, you must not eat at all.
  • Stay away from alcohol consumption as alcohol increases fluid losses.
  • Minimize caffeine intake as caffeine raises fluid losses.
  • Stay away from salty meals as salt increases fluid demands.
  • Do not ration water: keep water in your belly where it is readily available for employ when necessary.
  • Make the most of all rest stops to drink water. Take in slowly, drink small sips and keep the water inside your mouth for a little before ingesting.
  • Fill up your water containers at virtually any chance.

What To Drink

Cool water, without any artificial additives, is the perfect beverage to replenish yourself. Cold fluids tend to be easily absorbed from the digestive system.


With higher deficits of water you begin to have difficulties since you are losing the salts called electrolytes more rapidly than you are taking them in through fluids and meals. While a normal diet regime usually can replace these losses, in extreme heat extra resources must be supplied.
One fix for this problem is to dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of salt in a liter of water. This will make a concentration that the body can easily absorb. Nevertheless, a healthy diet is crucial to supply other electrolytes; eating well is vital whenever you are losing excessive amount of water.

Remember, water and electrolytes are lost during sweating, so both must be replaced.

Help Others

When curing someone with dehydration, moist his lips first and check if there is a gag reflex (swallowing). Dispense exclusively small sips. When providing treatment, be sure that the person is resting in any available cover from the sun.

Headache is often an early indication of dehydration. The pain is experienced on both sides of the head and it is generally worsened when the person stands up from lying down. Sleeping and consuming a minimum of 1 to 2 liters of water should alleviate the pain.


You have to be very intense in your quest for water while you have the energy. Heat stroke and dehydration are not a joke.


Survival Skills: How to Purify Water

Water is essential to human life. A person cannot go longer than three days without hydration. A person that does not receive liquid of some sort will, within three days exhibit signs of dehydration. Soon that person will die. Many people do not think about hydration on a daily basis. People get water from their food and juices, such as Gatorade and other drinks like colas and coffee. Safe drinking water for the most part, is taken for granted because in industrialized nations, there is not a lack of it. You must learn how to filter and purify water to keep yourself and family alive during a crisis, or when in a survival situation such as being lost or stranded in the wilderness.

Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococci Are Common Bacteria Found In Water

The water that flows from any household tap is treated and purified to remove bacteria and metals such as lead. The water that is treated generally comes from reservoirs and lakes. The same water untreated can be found inrivers, lakes and ponds.

Filter Water before purifying

Ideally, you will have a way to filter the water. Charcoal and coffee filters are an excellent way to filter water. Have water filtering in mind when packing your survival backpack. Cloth such as a tee-shirt or piece of flannel or even cheesecloth can be used, as well.  A small stainless steel bowl is recommended. Charcoal placed in the coffee filter is the ideal filtering medium for water, it removes heavy metals and other contaminates. However, water filtered with charcoal will still need to be purified to ensure all the bacteria are destroyed. Activated charcoal can be purchased or charcoal as a filtering medium can be made from burning hardwoods.


  1. Make your own charcoal right in camp. Use only hardwoods such as maple, hickory or oak. Pull the wood from the fire when it looks like charcoal. If possible, cover the wood with ashes to smother the fire otherwise; it will simply burn to ashes. Use sand or soil if you do not have enough ash. Once cooled, rinse the ash or dirt off, crush the charcoal and fill a tin can with a coffee filter in the bottom, pouring the charcoal into the filter. Punch a small hole in the bottom of the can to allow the filtered water to drain into another container to be treated or boiled.
  2. Dip with one vessel and filter into another vessel such as an empty water bottle. The cup or bottle used to dip the contaminated water will have bacteria and contaminates at the drink line. Filter the water so the second container’s drink line is not contaminated.

Methods to Purify Water to Make It Safe for Human Consumption

  • Boiling (my preferred method)
  • 2% liquid iodine  (aka tincture of iodine)
  • Typical household 5% Chlorine Bleach Unscented

Water that is safe to drink is called potable water. You may see containers that state they are safe to store potable water or containers that state not to be used for potable water. Containers that are safe to store water in include a well-rinsed milk jug, bottled water containers, vinegar jugs and well-rinsed soda containers. Essentially any container that was used to package food items is considered food safe, and can be used generally to store or transport water.

It is recommended to treat as large a volume as possible at one time. Your water source may dry up, or you may have to vacate your camp in a hurry. Therefore, having purified water stockpiled allows you to travel with purified water.

How to Purify Water by Boiling

Prior to boiling, you should filter as much debris and sediment from the water as you can. You will need the means to start a fire and you must have a vessel in which to boil the water. The water must boil rapidly for at least one minute. Boiling water will cause a loss of water through evaporation, so boiling longer than one minute will cause you to lose water volume. Before drinking, you must let the water cool. Protect the water from contamination by any means possible. Boiled water will have a very bland taste. To enhance the flavor of boiled water or water treated with iodine or bleach, you can add tea plants as mint. Add the enhancements after the water has cooled.

Water that has been poisoned or contaminated with chemicals is not safe to drink even after boiling, treating with iodine or with chlorine bleach. If you suspect your water source is chemically contaminated you must find another source.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using 2% Liquid Iodine Using a Standard Eyedropper as a Measurement

Once again, the water must be filtered to remove sediment and other debris. The iodine will not work as well if the water is extremely cloudy from debris or sediment. The ratio is based on liters. The ratio for iodine is five drops per liter.  If after filtering, the water is still cloudy, you can double the ratio but do not add more than 10 drops per liter. Shake the sealed container well and let set for at least 30 minutes. Tincture of iodine typically comes packaged with its own dropper.

How to Filter and Purify Water Using Chlorine Bleach

The ratio for chlorine bleach is also based on liters. When using five percent chlorine bleach, which is found in most homes, add two drops per liter. If cloudy after filtering, double the amount. Never exceed 4 drops of chlorine bleach per liter. If the chlorine bleach you are using is less than five percent such as one percent chlorine, use 10 drops per liter, never exceeding 20 drops per liter. Some chlorine bleach can contain between 7 and 10 percent chlorine, if this is the case, only use one drop per liter and do not add more than two drops per liter. The water once treated must set for at least 30 minutes. Do not use the dropper from the iodine bottle. Purchase and carry an eyedropper specifically for the bleach.


Summer Threats: Heat Illness

The temperature of the body is auto-regulated within very narrow limits. You’ve to  pay particular attention to whatever destabilizes this delicate balance. Heat can sentence  to death the body, pushing it over and above its capabilities . In a normal situation your inner thermostat generates sweat that evaporates and cools down the body. However, in a humid and  hot environment , evaporation is decreased and it’s necessary an extraordinary effort to keep body temperature at 36.8° ± 0.4°C.

To prevent these illnesses, make sure you keep up your body efficiency by:

  • drinking enough water
  • taking sufficient salt
  • eating adequately

Should you spend more calories than you take in, you will be more vulnerable to heat illnesses. You might lose your wish for food because of high temperature  but you should consume your required ration, arranging the more substantial meal at the cooler hours.

Roughly 75% of the human body is fluid. All chemical functions in the body occur in a water solution that helps in the elimination of toxic body waste products and plays a crucial role in the maintenance of an even body temperature. A loss of 2 liters of body fluid (around 2.5% of body weight) lessens efficiency by 25% and a loss of fluid corresponding to 15% of body weight is generally lethal.

Heat Illness Progression

  1. Deficiency of salt results in heat cramps.
  2. Lack of salt and insufficient water leads to heat exhaustion.
  3. General failure of the body’s cooling system causes heat stroke that can be lethal.

Heat Illness Symptoms

  • Sunburn: skin redness and pain, possible swelling, blisters, fever, headaches.
  • Heat cramps: muscle cramps of limbs or stomach. Profuse sweating  and excessive thirst.
  • Heat exhaustion: heavy perspiration with pale, moist, cool skin; headache, weakness, dizziness, appetite loss; heat cramps, nausea without or with vomit, accelerated respiration, confusion, prickling of the hands or feet.
  • Heat stroke: perspiration quits; red, flushed, hot dry skin.

It is vital to identify heat illness symptoms quickly. When affected by heat stroke the most harmful condition, there is an inclination for the victim to slip away from his team and try to hide in a shady and secluded area: if not discovered and treated he’ll perish.



Build A Water Filter To Survive In The Wilderness

It is crucial to be able to know how to build and use a water filter. You need a stable supply of water to maintain yourself in a survival situation and without it you will dehydratate. Finding water is a skill by itself but then you still have to make it safe and secure for human ingestion.

Filtering Is Different From Purifying

Filtering water is a different skill from purifying water. Nevertheless, when the best water obtainable is actually muddy water, it is a fundamental skill that may save your life.

Filtering the water basically means eliminating all visible dirt and debris which will help make it more secure to drink. Harmful bacteria and microorganisms will still exist in the water but the filtering process will make it taste just a little better.

Remember: all water procured in a survival situation needs to be purified, with the exception of rainwater. Filtering is necessary but it is not enough. Bacteria, protozoa, bacteria and parasites that can make you sick are too small to be stopped by a simple filter. The simplest way to purify the water is to boil it  for at least one minute.

Making a Bottle Water Filter

In order to filter water, you need a container. A plastic bottle is appropriate. Cut off the base of the bottle and use the top as a funnel. To trap small debris and particles, put some cloth material into the funnel. Using a can will also do the job. For the water to be able to run through you will have to punch a number of holes into the bottom of the can with your pocket knife. Then it’s just a matter of letting the water drop through the holes.

A simpler technique is to place a piece of cloth over the container’s mouth. This filter should take away the larger particles.

Making a natural water filter

The natural world provides you all the material to build a water filter. For example, to build a container, create a cone from bark or other materials as leaves. Alternate pebbles and sand in multiple layers to make a filter, working from coarse to fine as you work your way down the container. At the bottom of the container, use non-poisonous grass, several pebbles, or a piece of cotton cloth to stop the sand from pouring through. Wrap the bottom of the container together with a rope to hold the filter together.

Slowly pour your collected water into the cone. As the water drips out of the filter gather it in another container. Repeat this process until the water flows crystal clear. The slower the water falls the better.

Remember:  knowing how to build and use a  filter is a vital survival skill. Prepare yourself: build several water filter before you need one!


How to Procure Water

Water is a valuable commodity and this is never more evident than in a survival situation. Water is your main concern before food and shelter. Knowing how to procure water is essential to everyone’s survival.

Water can be obtained by various methods to include plants, hardwood trees, and the ground itself. Obviously, rivers, streams, lakes and ponds are another water source. However, water obtained from standing pools, rivers, lakes or streams must be purified before it is safe to drink.

You might naturally assume that small streams or creeks deep in the woods would be free of contaminates. This is not the case though. Animals and other humans may very well have contaminated the water. Additionally, water will contain bacterium from various sources such as animal waste and the naturally occurring bacteria in nature will be present.

Things to Look For Around a Water Source

You want signs of animal activity around a water source, such as birds and mammals, as well as, insects. This usually indicates the water is not chemically contaminated. Animals and insects can drink water contaminated with bacteria without any ill effects whereas humans cannot.

Even though, there are no chemical pollutants, the water it is still not safe for human consumption without first properly purifying.

How to Procure Water from Trees and Plants

Hardwoods such as maple (Acer), oak (Quercus), walnut (Juglans regia), hickory (Carya) and birch (Betula) will secrete sap if small holes are made in the tree. Do not ring the tree with cuts because this may kill the tree. Small holes, such as the ones used to harvest maple syrup, will suffice. Simply bore a hole with your knife or make slanted diagonal slits in the tree after removing a small section of the bark. The tree will produce small amounts of sap that can immediately be consumed. Early spring is the ideal time, but trees can produce sap at virtually anytime except in extreme cold weather. Having a means to collect the sap is ideal; otherwise simply drink straight from the tree.

All the common species of thistles (Tribe: Cardueae Geni: Arctium, Carduus, Cirsium) can be harvested for water. Once the thistles have been removed, the pulpy stalk can be squeezed to extract the water or eaten. The plant will contain some nutrients so eating the stalks is ideal.

Remember: simply having the plant described to you is not an adequate means of identification. Before a day hike or camping trip you should research various plants so you can make a positive identification when out in the woods.

Certain cacti such as that in the Opuntia genus (Prickly Pear) contain potable water, as well. The cactus can also be eaten or squeezed to extract the water.

The Earth’s Soil Is One of the Best Water Filtration Systems There Is

Once you find a stream, lake or even a pond, you can dig small depressions next to the water. Typically, the soil next to a body of water will contain sand and small gravel, which acts as a filtration system. The small depressions will fill with ground water. This water is normally safe to drink. Filter the sediment out by wrapping your cup or canteen mouth with some cloth and dip the vessel into the depression. Contaminates contained in the water will have been filtered out by the soil.

However, do not dig a channel from the body of water to collect in the depression. The water must bubble up from the ground. This perking of water assures you that the ground has filtered it, and has made the water safe for drinking.

How to Procure Water Using Rain Gear or a Poncho and Even Plastic Sheeting

Many of you may have walked outside in the morning during the summer months and have found your vehicle’s windshield is covered in moisture. The moisture collected on outside surfaces overnight is called dew. Dew is caused by the sun heating the moisture in the atmosphere during the day and the cooling at night allows it to condensate on surfaces, such as a windshield.

Dew can be collected by draping your poncho, rain gear or plastic over a bush at night. Place the material so there are small depressions to collect the dew. Avoid placing the collection station under trees; having an open spot is ideal for maximum collection. Plastic and or your rain gear can also be used to collect rainwater. Dig a small depression in the ground, place the material over the hole and secure the sides with rocks. Place a smaller rock in the center to create a funnel effect.

Monitor the water source carefully or cover to prevent contamination by animals and insects. Ensure water is not allowed to run off from the ground’s surface into the collection pool.

How to Procure Water Directly From the Ground Using a Solar Distiller

To make a solar water distiller or water still you will need clear or semi-clear plastic and the means to dig a small hole. The distiller works by sweating or distilling moisture from the ground. The plastic sheeting needs to be big enough to cover the hole and allow slack to form a depression. Plastic can easily be stored in any pack by folding or rolling up tightly. Keep in mind when digging the hole, the larger the depression, the more water you will collect. This process is similar to a glass of liquid sweating in a warm room. Heat transfers from hot to cold so as the ground and plants warm, the heat will transfer from the ground to the cooler air. This process leaves the moisture behind on the plastic.

Once dug if the soil looks dry you can place non-poisonous green plants in the hole. The sun will also sweat the moisture from the plants. Place the plastic over the hole and secure the sides with rocks. Place a small rock in the center to form a funnel. You can make a hole in the plastic and place a cup in the depression to collect the water or simply scoop it from the plastic. Soon the ground and any plants in the hole will begin to heat up. You will see condensation on the plastic relatively quickly. Leave the distiller to do its work until the air begins to cool after sundown. The water will then condensate and begin dripping down the sides of the plastic.

You may have an additional water source but you simply have no means of purification. You can use the source to enhance the distiller by pouring water around the hole. Do not pour the water in the hole. You want the ground to filter the water and have the moisture seep from the ground into the depression you have dug. This will increase the distillers output. Under certain circumstances, you may be able to obtain up 4 liters or more of safe drinking water daily using a solar water distiller.

Backpack Essentials for Procuring Water

Knowing how to procure water is one thing however; having the essentials to do so is another:

  • Clear Plastic
  • Fixed Bladed Knife As Well As A Multi-Purpose Tool Use The Hole Punch Blade To Bore Holes
  • Trenching Tool
  • Stainless Steel Vessel To Collect And Store Water
  • Water Straws For Easier Collection Of Tree Sap