Tag Archives: Herb

5 Ways To Preserve Your Herbs

5 Ways To Preserve Your Herbs

5 Ways To Preserve Your HerbsYou can store herbs in several ways: drying, freezing, tinctures or glycerites, oils and vinegars.

Your desired use will determine the way you preserve them:

  • Drying is perfect for teas.
  • Freezing offers fresh tastes even during the cold winter.
  • Tinctures or glycerites are great tonics if you want an immunity enhance.
  • Oils and vinegars are full of the minerals and vitamins from the herbs, not captured in the tinctures and may be used in your cooking.

Drying Herbs

Hang herbs upside down in a dry, dark, well-ventilated location. Attics are ideal for this. Put a paper bag around them to avoid dust.
Put them in a jar once they are dry. Use a glass container, not plastic and place away from direct sunlight or heat. Your basement or a closet is perfect.

Freezing Herbs

Freezing can be achieved in 2 ways:

  • Clean and dry the fresh herbs and put on a cookie sheet in the freezer. When they are frozen, place them in freezer bags. A few herbs may turn brown or dark after freezing, but the flavor remains preserved.
  • Another way is to mix the herbs in some water or oil and freeze in ice cube trays. Employ 2 cups washed leaves to 1 ½ cups water or 6 cups leaves to ½ cup oil. Freeze then place in freezer bags. Just add the cubes to your recipes.

Tinctures

You can make tinctures with alcohol or vegetable glycerin, which is technically a glycerite.

Alcohol should be 80-100 proof. Use fresh herbs if you can ,. The ratio is 1:2 for fresh, i.e. 50g of fresh herb per 100g of menstruum. The ratios for dried are 1:5, i.e. 50g of dried herb for 250g of menstruum.

Put the herbs in a jar, cover completely with the liquid and cap. Place in a cool, dark place – back to the basement, for 4-6 weeks shaking daily. Always label your tinctures with the date. When done, strain the herbs off with gauze and bottle the liquid.

Normally ½ to 1 teaspoon, 3 times a day is a good dosage. As with anything medicinal, if you see an allergic reaction like rash, trouble breathing etc., cease use immediately.

Oil Infusion

Herb infused oils are fantastic to employ in cooking, but also if you want to make a salve or ointment, you already have the base ready. They’re also perfect for massage or liniments.

Only use fresh virgin olive oil. Fill a jar ¾ full of fresh chopped herbs. Put oil to cover the herbs to ¼ inch below the jar top. Put a piece of gauze over the jar top and secure with the metal ring. This will let the moisture to escape and keep the oil from becoming rancid. Place in a warm, sunny location for a minimum of 14 days, stirring daily. After you have let the oil steep, strain off the herbs and cap. Store in a cool, dark location.

Vinegars

Tincturing draws out the therapeutic properties of herbs, but not the minerals and vitamins. The best choice is to use raw, organic apple cider vinegar. Always use fresh herbs. Lightly position the herbs in a jar, don’t jam. Cover with vinegar and top with a plastic lid. If you haven’t one, put some plastic wrap over the jar and screw down the lid. Label your jar with the date. Shake daily for 6 weeks. Strain and store. Use to marinate meats, fish, vegetables, or on your salads or take as a tonic, ¼ tsp at a time.

Chamomile

The Amazing Health Properties of Chamomile

Chamaemelum nobile, Asteraceae, Roman Camomile...
Roman Camomile (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chamomile is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs. This daisy-like plant is characterized by its yellow disk flowers that are normally 1-3 cm wide each, and surrounded by white rays. It also features some linear feather-like leaves that are finely divided. This wonderful herb grows in populated areas in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia and Asia.

There are several species of chamomile. However, the ones that are mostly recognized for their medicinal value are the Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) and the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). These two have some stark differences in their appearance. The Roman chamomile is a short, creeping plant that does not exceed 30 cm in height. On the other hand, the German chamomile can grow up to 60 cm tall, and has many stems hence more flowers. These flowers are smaller than those of the Roman chamomile. Another difference is that the Roman chamomile is a perennial plant while the German chamomile is an annual plant. However, the two of them have the same therapeutic benefits albeit these physical differences.

Echte Kamille (Matricaria recutita)
German chamomile (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The great thing about chamomile is that it blooms continuously from early summer to the start of the winter season. In fact, it blooms throughout the year in areas where there are no cold winters. This means that there is never a shortage of flowers.

Chamomile has very many health properties. First, it acts as a digestive tonic that is not only safe, but also gentle on the stomach. It is highly effective in dealing with bowel problems, vomiting, gas, indigestion and a host of other stomach issues. Chamomile is the only herb that can deal with acute or chronic gastric disorders and bowel diseases that are caused by hyper-excitability and nervousness. Its constituents contain sedative and antispasmodic agents that ease inflammation as well as nervous spasm in the digestive tract. These agents also help to expel gas, and boost the production of bile.

Chamomile is a great laxative with strong antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It can treat all skin inflammations that arise from fungal or bacterial infections, contact allergies and flea bites. These include things like hemorrhoids, plaques, conjunctivitis, skin dryness and psoriasis. An infusion of chamomile flowers makes a nice antimicrobial rinse that not only heals the skin but also soothes it, leaving behind a very nice feeling.

Chamomile has been used for generations as a sleep aid. It is a mild sedative with relaxing and soothing properties. Apart from humans, it can be fed to animals to cure a variety of anxiety-related or spasmodic problems. Being a sweet-tasting herb, which is soluble in water, chamomile is quite easy and safe to administer to animals. It usually recommended by vets before trying other stronger sedatives and antispasmodics.

Studies have shown that the antispasmodic, antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic effects of chamomile have health benefits for diabetic and cancer patients. They also improve the oral mucous membrane and help wounds to heal faster. The sedative effects of this herb are highly effective in treating insomnia, nervousness, cramps, cold and fever. Additionally, chamomile has been shown to boost the health of patients with bladder problems, bronchitis, skin eruptions, cataplasms, swelling, back pain, jaundice, heatstroke, spleen and kidney problems.

Chamomile is a proven tonic, which strengthens and constricts smooth muscle tissues in the body, including the uterus, the bladder and the heart. It’s relaxing and tonic effects help to ease dental pain. It is also used as an appetite tonic before meals. Another dietary benefit of chamomile is expelling worms. Unlike other herbal wormers such as walnut hulls and wormwood, chamomile is completely non-toxic. However, it is not as effective as the other anthelmintics.

Preparation and administration

To prepare a cup of chamomile tea, you will need 2 tablespoonfuls of  flowers.

  • Boil the water, and then add the flowers.
  • Put it in a cup and cover it with a plate.
  • Leave it to infuse for around 12 minutes, after which it will be ready for consumption.
  • You can add a teaspoon of honey or lemon juice to taste, and for additional health benefits. Lemon juice boosts the cleansing process of the digestive system. It also helps to deal with flu.
herbal preparations tinctures

Herbal Preparations: Tinctures

Tinctures are produced by extracting medicinal constituents of herbs in alcohol. They are more potent and longer lasting when compared with preparations that are water based such as decoctions and infusions.

 

Tincture Preparation

You will need the following ingredients:

  1. 30g dried herbs
  2. 400 ml of brandy
  3. 170 ml water

Method

  1. Bruise the herb and mix the water and spirit together
  2. Place the herbs in a large jar and add the water and spirit
  3. Leave to stand in a cool dry place for only 2 weeks. Make sure that you shake the jar daily.
  4. After the 2 weeks, strain through a muslin cloth and pour the liquid in a sterilized glass bottle.
  5. Make sure that you label the bottles with the name of the tincture, the dosage and use and also the date.

The standard dose is 1 to 3 tablespoons daily. For gargles and washes however, it is important to dilute 1 tablespoon in 1 cup of water.

Tinctures are able to preserve themselves indefinitely.

 

haab-seasonal-calendar

The Right Time To Harvest Plants

Herbs ought to be gathered the moment the specific plant portion reaches the top of its healing power.

  • Leaves and stems – before the plant blooms. harvest in the morning as soon as the dew has disappeared but before the sun’s rays evaporates the oils.
  • Flowers – before they reach full bloom.
  • Fruits and berries – when they become ripe.
  • Roots and rhizomes – in the autumn as the leaves begin to change color, when the plants’ sap has returned down.
  • Barks and twigs – early in the year as the first leaves appear and the plants’ sap is rising.
Six Amazing Indigenous Healing Plants

Six Amazing Indigenous Healing Plants

Throughout history, people have used various herbs, plants and fruits for medicinal purposes. Today we’re still discovering plants with seemingly miraculous properties. Some are used to prepare liquid healing concoctions, while others can be eaten straight. Here we take a look at six healing plants, each one native to a different continent.

North America

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) is a perennial herbaceous plant that can grow up to 3 meters tall. Also referred to as the Virginia poke, American nightshade and pigeon berry, this native North American plant is an important source of nutrition for native songbirds, such as the Northern Mockingbird and the Gray Catbird.

Pokeweed extract is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, tonsillitis, swollen glands, bronchitis and constipation, among other ailments. This medicinal herb is most commonly taken in the form of a liquid extract. It’s also available as a powder for mixing into drinks, and some use the berries of the plant to make jelly or pie.

South America

Camucamu (Myrciaria dubia) is a short, bushy, riverside tree that grows primarily in Peru and Brazil, preferring the tropical conditions of the Amazonian rainforest.

The cherry-like fruits that it produces range in hue from red to purple and are known for their incredibly high Vitamin C content, which amounts to 2 to 3% of its actual weight – before being dried. This is what gives the fruit its healing properties. In health stores, it’s often sold in the form of powder made from the pulp of the fruit.

Australasia

Cheese fruit (Morinda Citrfolia) comes from a tree in the coffee family Rubiaceae, although this strange-looking fruit looks nothing like a coffee bean.

The cheese fruit plant yields anywhere between 4 and 8 kilograms of fruit per year. The fruit itself has a famously pungent odour when ripening, and is sometimes even referred to as “vomit fruit”. The fruit starts off green, and then changes from yellow almost to white as it ripens.  The fruit, as well as the leaves, roots and seeds of the plant, are used to treat many ailments, including menstrual cramps, bowel irregularities and skin inflammation.

Europe

Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) is an annual plant that thrives all over Europe and that has now been introduced in more temperate parts of Asia.

Chamomile requires open soil to survive, and is often found growing near roads and even landfills. The chamomile plan doesn’t grow much taller than 30 to 40 cm. The dried flower is commonly used in herbal tea and is known to relieve stomach ache, treat irritable bowel syndrome and act as a gentle sleeping aid. Recent pharmaceutical studies have also indicated that chamomile may be effective in lowering cholesterol.

Africa

The Buchu plant (Agathosma betulina) is a herbaceous shrub with small oval leaves with stems that grow between 100 and 200 cm tall. It’s native to the Western Cape in South Africa. The plant has a long history of medicinal use in Southern Africa, most commonly for its anti-inflammatory properties, although it also treats a range of other ailments.

Buchu is also used to treat gastrointestinal pain and urinary tract infections. It’s also known as an effective diuretic and antiseptic. Buchu is most commonly used to make a medicinal tea, although some companies now produce a range of herbal health products that contain oil from the plant.

Asia

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), also known as bitter gourd or bitter squash, is a tropical vine. It’s native to India but has spread throughout the rest of Asia. It’s famous for its edible fruit, which varies in flavor and shape depending on the variety of the vine.

Bitter melon has long been used as an herbal remedy. Often it’s first soaked in either oil or honey. The plant is most famous in Asia for preventing and treating malaria. In Togo, the plant is used to treat chickenpox and measles, as well as various gastrointestinal diseases.

 

Guest post by Jeff from Buchulife.com, who provide a herbal health product range based on the buchu plant.

achillea-millefolium

The Health Properties of Yarrow – Achillea millefolium

Yarrow also referred to as Achillea millefolium is a unique flowering plant which belongs to the Asteraceae family which is commonly found in the Northern-Hemisphere. In other regions like southern Colorado and Mexico, this plant is referred to as little feather or plumajillo because of the shape of its leaves. During the ancient times, this plant was referred to as herbal militaris because of its use in stopping blood flow from wounds. Other names include oil man’s pepper, milfoil, thousand seal, thousand leaf, devil’s nestles and Gordaldo among other names.

This herb grows everywhere in the meadows, grass or by the road-side and since its roots creep greatly and it multiplies by seeds, it has become one of the most trouble-some weed in any garden.

Description

Français : Achillea millefolium - Achillée mil...
Français : Achillea millefolium – Achillée millefeuille – Vallée de grâce à Amiens (Somme) le 22/06/2007 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

This plant is an erect herbaceous-perennial plant which produces one or more stems that can grow up to a maximum height of one meter, plus it has rhizomatous growth-form.

Achillea millefolium - leaves (scan)
Achillea millefolium – leaves (scan) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Its leaves are distributed evenly along the stem with bottom and middle leaves being bigger. The leaves of yarrow are about 20cm long and either tripinnate or bipinnate, plus they are feathery and arranged in a spiral manner on the plants stem. The leaves of this plant are cauline and clasping.

Achillea millefolium - Duizendblad
Achillea millefolium – Duizendblad (Photo credit: AnneTanne)

Yarrow contains 3-8 ray round or ovate flowers which have white-to-pink flowers. These plants have small achenes fruits and they grow in high or low altitudes of up to 3500m above-sea-level.

Health properties of Yarrow

This herb has been used for years to deal with various illnesses because of its various properties including:

  • Diuretic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antibiotic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Sedative
  • Astringent
  • Antiseptic

Recent research has shown that these properties can help dealt with various illnesses including:

Fever

Yarrow can help lower fever especially in the early stages of flu and cold. To lower your fever all you have to do is drink a mug of hot yarrow after each 2-3 hours. To create the tea, all you need is a spoon of dried leaves and boiling water. You can let it boil for ten to fifteen minutes before straining.

Lowering of blood pressure

To help reduce your blood pressure, yarrow can help dilate your peripheral vessels. This will help improve the tone and circulation of various varicose veins.

Anti inflammatory properties

Yarrow infusion can help relieve inflammation and pain caused by arthritis or various injuries. This herb can help lower skin inflammation like psoriasis & eczema. This also helps cleanse all wounds while speeding up healing.

Hemostatic properties

This is the best herb for dealing with acute surface bleeding and abrasion. You can apply yarrow directly onto the wound to halt bleeding, while reducing inflammation and swelling. This herb can be used to deal with persistent wounds or sores that are not healing easily like rashes, burns and skin ulcers.

Pain

Yarrow can help relieve the pain caused by bladder infection. This herb can also help reduce the frequent need to urinate when you have an infection in your bladder. If you are suffering from hemorrhoids, then the best solution for the pain is soaking in a bath tab mixed with yarrow extract.

Other properties

1. This herb can help deal with the stomach cramps which have been caused by stomach indigestion.

2. This herb can help normalize your menstrual cycle, by reducing the heavy menstrual bleeding.

3. Fresh yarrow leaves can be chewed to relieve any toothache

4. Various studies done have shown that this herb can help reduce smooth-muscle spasms, which can be used to explain its gastro-intestinal benefits further.

Preparation of yarrow tincture

Preparation of yarrow tincture is quite simple, the hard part is storing it until it becomes potent.

1. Get approximately 200g of dried roots and add them into a 1 liter Mason jar or mug.

2. You can then add about 1 liter of rum, vodka or grain alcohol into the jar containing the dried roots to help saturate them and then close the jar tightly

3. Store this mixture in a dry and dark place for about 4 weeks. If you need a stronger tincture, make sure you store it for approximately 8 weeks.

4. Make sure you shake the jar each day until the tincture is ready for use.

Various individuals are allergic to this herb and some have developed dermatitis from just touching it. So make sure you are not allergic before trying this herb. This herb tends to interact with other drugs like blood pressure and thinning drugs.

See Also

 

Decoction

Herbal Preparations: Decoction

A decoction is a method for extracting oils, volatile organic compounds, and other chemical substances from hard plant materials such as roots and bark.

When making herbal decoctions, the ingredients are in most cases 30g (2 tablespoons) of dried herb and 500 ml of water.

Simple Decoction

1. Crush and mash the herbs

2. Place them in a bowl and add boiling water

3. Cover the bowl with a lid and let it stand overnight

4. Replace the water that has been lost by evaporation

5. Place the water with the herbs in an enamel pan.

6. Bring to boil slowly

7. Simmer for about 20 minutes while keeping the lid covered

8. Using a muslin cloth, strain and press all the liquid

The decoction can last up to a period of 2-3 days and it can be taken without diluting .

Reduced Decoction

Follow the simple decoction’s procedure until step 5.

6.  Heat until steam comes out while keeping covered with a lid

7. Turn the heat low and steam for about 1 hour until you see that the liquid has gone down to 250 ml.

8. Using a muslin cloth, strain and press all the liquid

When stored in a cool place, this will keep for around 4-5 days.

 

Preserved Decoction

You can preserve a decoction longer either by:

  1. Adding 450g sugar or honey to 200 ml of decoction. This should be taken in dosages of 1 teaspoon 3 times daily.
  2. Adding liquors such as vodka or brandy at a ratio of 1:2. This should be taken in dosages of 1/4 cup daily.
  3. Pouring a very thin layer of vegetable oil on the surface of the decoction and then sealing. When need to use arises, just draw the oil off and pour the decoction from it. It should be taken in measurements of 3 teaspoons 3 times daily.

See Also

Cold Season

What NOT To Do During Cold And Flu Season

While this article is called what NOT to do, I will be offering a plethora of what TO DO.

Have you ever wondered why some people seem to be sick every single season, when others cruise through? It’s not just because they are lucky, it’s because of the old survival rule ‘Be Prepared’

 

DON’Ts –

  1. Don’t “starve a fever and feed a cold” – don’t do either. Instead, drink a lot of water, preferably warm as it helps to soothe mucous membranes. Drink fresh juices – get yourself a juicer so you can do this at least once a day. Raw foods are proven immune strengtheners. Eat healthy – I know we all want to comfort eat but that is damaging and can in fact just start a downward spiral.
  2. Hot milk
    Hot milk (Photo credit: anasararojas)

    Don’t drink sugary or milky warm drinks – this increases acidity, which puts you in the sick room in the first place. It also increases mucous which you don’t want. Constant aggravation of your nervous system and digestive system will only aggravate your respiratory system. Instead, drink lots of warm water infused with beneficial herbs such as nasturtium thyme, sage, chamomile, mint and Himalayan salt. It replaces valuable electrolytes as well as soothing airways and flushing out toxins.

  3. Don’t sit indoors in warm rooms 24/7 – this actually allows the bugs to grow due to increased humidity. If you are suffering a fever, by all means rug up and warm your body but the fresh air outside is far more beneficial. As is the great big free Vitamin D machine – sunshine. Don’t cover up, don’t block out the sun’s rays. Considering we need a few hours a day to absorb sufficient D, many of us are lacking. And considering asthma is linked to a D deficiency, it explains why lots of kids and even adults suffer with asthma so frequently.
  4. Don’t just use mentholated rub on your chest or neck. Don’t laugh but the best place to use it is on the soles of your feet. I am not joking. If you cough, it will actually stop it faster than any cough medicine. For kids, rub it on before bed and cover feet with socks. It works. Of course, try and find a non-petroleum jelly based rub – there are many based on safer gels.
  5. Don’t share your germs! Don’t go to work, don’t send your kids to school or daycare, don’t cough in public and don’t cough into your hands. Each of these things will spread sickness faster than anything else. I personally get angry when I am forced to share the germs of others. I don’t share mine and I appreciate others offering the same respect.
  6. Don’t try and work it out of you. Think about the animals in the wild. When they are sick, they sleep and even hibernate. Sometimes they eat plants for instinctive healing, but most of all they sleep. We need to learn to do the same. If your body is telling you it is too tired or weak to work, listen. Go to bed, sleep it off. You’d do the same for a hangover or late night, and they are self inflicted. If your body speaks, just allow yourself to listen it. Rather than drag an illness out or make it worse (no, you can’t sweat it out by overburdening it) you may just find you cut the duration.
  7. Don’t just let your body suffer. That is one of the worst things you can do and I am amazed at the number of so-called experts who will advise you to do this very thing. The body cannot heal well while it is under duress. If a cut is inflamed and you irritate it, will it heal? The same can be said for any inflammatory illness. Soothe it with analgesia – that can range from willowbark and feverfew to a special paracetamol/codeine formulation.
  8. Don’t ignore it hoping it will go away. All you are doing is putting off the inevitable and inviting more chronic illness. I have lost count of the number of chronically unwell people who begin with “I thought it was just a cold and that it would go away.”

So what can you do?

Well, apart from what has been written above, there is a LOT you can do.

  1. A herbal ‘antibiotic’– of which there are many. Most will contain echinacea and garlic – funny enough, most doctors will say not to waste your time, yet studies have proven that in contagious disease, including drug-resistant strains, that herbal medicine is far more effective than any drug on the market. And with far less side effects. These herb-biotics can range from basic herbs to Chinese herbs (free of questionable and cruelly-derived animal ingredients) and can be in tablet or tonic forms. The taste does take some getting used to but in my house at least, the kids love the taste.

    An Ikea garlic press, with pressed garlic.
    pressed garlic (source: wikipedia)
  2. Steaming and nasal washing – using neti pots, steam machines, even a hot shower – these all serve to clean and soothe the mucous membranes and actually speed healing.
  3. Look at your lifestyle and diet. If you find yourself getting repeated coughs, colds and flus, it is no coincidence. Overhaul your diet – include raw and fresh food, lots of water and remove all the usual triggers of ill health – wheat, yeast, sugar, dairy and meat. See these foods as a rare treat. If you have detrimental habits/addictions you may have to ask yourself what is more important.
  4. Hot baths (hydrotherapy). You may not believe this but if you run a hot bath and add a tablespoon each of powdered ginger, Epsom Salts and Bicarb, you will draw and ‘break’ the virus. Try it – it works. The same therapy is safe for all ages.
  5. Orange, pear, appleIncrease antioxidant intake. Fresh, raw juices – cucumber, celery, carrot, apple, orange, berry, cabbage, kale, spinach. The benefits of these foods raw, are far too numerous to mention. Studies have shown that antioxidant intake is better than just about any other option – A, C, E, curcuminoids (turmeric etc), pine bark extract, olive leaf extract, etc – all not only fight the virus but knock off free radicals and soothe tissues.
  6. Foot soaks. Foot spas or even a bucket of hot water with Epsom Salts, Eucalyptus and other essential oils will draw out toxins and warm the body.
  7. Washing – both your body and surroundings. You need to wash away the toxins that build up at least once every two days (if you are very unwell). Your clothing and bedding will need regular cleaning and disinfecting with a healthy option such as eucalyptus, lavender or tea tree oil.
  8. Excrete – no joke. There are herbs that help with expectoration (coughing up of mucous), diaphoresis (sweating), urination (flushing through the kidneys) and bowel evacuation which needs to be kept frequent in order to prevent stagnant build up and weakened processes. See my other articles on such herbs – it’s worth it for everyone to either have a little herb garden or a store of them in the pantry.

 

Be pro-active this season. If you are already unwell, please take the steps necessary to get well. If you are not yet affected, please take the steps to build your immunity and make your environment one that discourages poor immunity. Don’t ignore it hoping it will go away. All you are doing is putting off the inevitable and inviting more chronic illness. I have lost count of the number of chronically unwell people who begin with “I thought it was just a cold and that it would go away.”

infusion

Herbal Preparations: Infusion

Infusions are one of the prominent herbal preparations. The main difference between an infusion and a simple herbal tea is in time and quantity.

  • An ordinary herbal teas is made with 1-2 teaspoons of herbs per cup and brewed for a few minutes.
  • Infusions are made with 1-2 tablespoons of dried herbs per 1 liter of water and brewed for several hours or even overnight.

How To Prepare An Infusion

When making them, it is advisable to infuse each and every herb on its own instead of mixing the different herbs together.

I like to use a container that has a tight lid because it retains the essence. When compared to a teapot, a container that has a tight lid is much better because it retains the essence. Jars that come with a screw top are the best and especially if they are warmed first.

You should first of all place a cup of herbs into a 1 liter jar and seal tightly after filling to the top with water that is boiling. You should leave this to brew for around 4 hours for leaf infusions and 2 hours for flower infusions. Once you are done with brewing, make sure that you strain off the liquid well on a muslin cloth by pressing out the last drops and pouring them into a jar or bottle.

External Resources

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